Kandler Smith portrait

Kandler Smith

Researcher VI-Mechanical Engineering

Orcid ID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7011-0377

Kandler Smith leads the battery computational modeling team in NREL's Center for Integrated Mobility Sciences. His energy storage research projects focus on predicting and extending the lifetime of lithium-ion batteries. He also applies machine-learning techniques for model identification, fast charging, and the computational design and multi-scale modeling of electrochemical/thermal/mechanical-coupled phenomena in lithium-ion batteries. 

Research Interests

Battery design and modeling

Battery lifespan

Battery microstructures

Battery second use

Computer-aided engineering for electric-drive vehicle batteries

Energy storage

Transportation research


Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University

M.S., Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University

M.S., Engineering Management, University of Florida

B.S., Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech

Professional Experience

Senior Engineer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2007–Present)

Research Assistant and Graduate Fellow, Pennsylvania State University (2001–2006)

Control Engineer and Flight Test Representative, United Technologies’ Pratt and Whitney (1997–2001)

Featured Work

From Battery Cell to Electrodes: Real-Time Estimation of Charge and Health of Individual Battery Electrodes, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics (2020)

A Reformulation of the Pseudo2D Battery Model Coupling Large Electrochemical-Mechanical Deformations at Particle and Electrode Levels, Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2019)

Field-Aging Test Bed for Behind-the-Meter PV + Energy Storage: Preprint, IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (2019)

Numerical Investigation of Thermal Runaway Mitigation through a Passive Thermal Management System, Journal of Power Sources (2019)

Degradation Mechanisms of High Capacity 18650 Cells Containing Si-Graphite Anode and Nickel-Rich NMC Cathode, Electrochimica Acta (2019)

Requirements for Enabling Extreme Fast Charging of High Energy Density Li-Ion Cells while Avoiding Lithium Plating, Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2019)

Spatially Resolving Lithiation in Silicon-Graphite Composite Electrodes via in Situ High-Energy X-ray Diffraction Computed Tomography, Nano Letters (2019)

Electrochemistry Coupled Mesoscale Complexations in Electrodes Lead to Thermo-Electrochemical Extremes, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2018)

Performance and Health Test Procedure for Grid Energy Storage Systems, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (2018)

Design and Analysis of Large Lithium-Ion Battery Systems, Artech House (2014)

View all NREL publications for Kandler Smith.


Model Predictive Control and Optimization for Battery Charging and Discharging, U.S. Patent No. 10,298,026 (2019)

Autonomous Battery Control and Optimization, U.S. Patent No. 10,277,041 (2019)

Battery Control, U.S. Patent No. 10,063,066 (2018)

Fail-Safe Design for Large Battery Systems, U.S. Patent No. 9,341,678 (2016)

Awards and Honors

NREL Outstanding Mentor Award (2014)

NREL Staff Award (2012)

NREL Technology Transfer Award (2012)

NREL Working with Business Award (2012)

NREL President's Award (2009)

Invited to Finland by U.S. Ambassador Bruce Oreck to represent NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy in seminars and interviews (2009)