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Energy Storage

NREL innovations accelerate development of high-performance, cost-effective, and safe energy storage systems to power the next generation of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs).

While hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs) promise to curb emissions and slash America's need for imported oil, battery price and performance can present considerable challenges. NREL, the country's recognized leader in battery thermal management research and development (R&D), is helping address these issues and put new EDVs on the road.

NREL researchers conduct energy storage R&D at the materials, cell, battery, pack, and systems levels, with projects including:

Researchers use a full portfolio of sophisticated evaluation, analytical, and modeling tools including the lab's R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters to put batteries and other energy storage components through a comprehensive set of evaluations. Learn more about our state-of-the-art research equipment and facilities as well as our awards and publications.

Pursuing Demanding Performance and Cost Targets

Often the most expensive of EDV components, batteries power the motor and other electrical systems, while storing kinetic, regenerative-braking, and grid-fed energy. To make all-electric, hybrid, and plug-in hybrid vehicles more attractive to consumers, the batteries that power those cars need to be affordable, high performing, long lasting, safe, and operate at maximum efficiency in a wide range of driving conditions and climates.

The U.S. Department of Energy set a target range for the next generation of electric-drive cars of 250-300 miles per charge, placing greater pressure on the vehicles' battery packs. At the same time, battery costs need to be cut from $350–$550 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) to $125/kWh, and battery lifespan needs to be extended to 15 years from its current 8 years for EDVs to gain meaningful market share.

Benefiting Consumers, Industry, and the Environment

As manufacturers develop new electric-drive vehicles, NREL acts as a go-to resource in boosting efficiency and troubleshooting deficiencies in energy storage systems, ultimately helping automakers and battery companies design better vehicles and meet challenging cost and performance targets. NREL experts work closely with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), and industry partners to develop battery solutions tailored to the realities of the environment, supply chain, manufacturing, and the marketplace.

Pioneering New Battery Technologies

Many automakers have adopted lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries as the preferred EDV energy storage option, capable of delivering the required energy and power density in a relatively small, lightweight package. Although much of NREL's energy storage R&D is dedicated to perfecting Li-ion technology (i.e., enhancing cyclability of silicon anodes and atomic layer depositions coatings to increase longevity and safety), researchers recognize the importance of constant innovation and continue to explore new options, including organic liquid, solid-state, lithium-air, and magnesium-ion technologies.

By addressing energy storage issues in the R&D stages, before EDVs hit the roadways, NREL helps carmakers offer consumers affordable, high-performance alternatives to gasoline-powered automobiles.

Analytical Tools & Resources

NREL offers multiple tools to improve battery production, performance, and recycling/reuse so Li-ion batteries can be responsibly implemented from start-to-finish, increasing EDV marketplace appeal and benefiting the environment.

  • Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tools (BLAST): This suite of tools pairs NREL's high-fidelity battery degradation model with electrical and thermal performance models specific to batteries and larger systems, with versions for behind-the-meter (BLAST BTM-Lite), vehicle (BLAST-V), and stationary (BLAST-S) applications.
  • Computer-Aided Engineering for Batteries (CAEBAT): CAEBAT engineering tools help battery designers, developers, and manufacturers create the advanced battery technologies needed to boost EDV performance. NREL has collaborated with industry, university, and laboratory partners to develop breakthroughs in computer-aided engineering across three phases of the CAEBAT project focusing on modeling, safety, and integration/application.
  • Battery Second-Use Repurposing Cost Calculator: Finding new ways to repurpose Li-ion batteries can increase their lifespan and usefulness, with benefits ranging from potential cost savings for consumers to environmental gains. This tool is used to explore the effects of different repurposing strategies and assumptions on the economics of battery second use.


NREL publishes journal articles, conference papers, technical report, and other documents about the lab’s energy storage research. Browse our energy storage publications.

Working with Us

Partnering with industry, government, and universities is key to developing affordable energy storage technology and moving it into the marketplace and the U.S. economy. In collaboration with a variety of partners, NREL uses thermal management, modeling, and analysis from a vehicle systems perspective to improve energy storage devices.

Many of NREL's energy storage technologies are available for licensing, including the lab's patented battery software as well as patented battery technologies.

For more information, refer to the Work with Us page.


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