Elaine Hale is an interdisciplinary systems researcher in the Economics and Forecasting Group in the Grid Planning and Analysis Center. She focuses on understanding potential roles for flexible and demand-side technologies in future power systems with more variable renewable generation. With a background in control and optimization algorithm development, Elaine has enabled and conducted large-scale analysis of complex engineering systems, and systems of systems. She has helped found or has been a key early developer of multiple innovative NREL software tools.

Research Interests

Design, planning, and policy related to renewable energy and energy efficiency integration into new and existing energy systems

Modeling energy systems across multiple geographic and temporal scales

Efficient development and distribution of software tools for solving complex engineering problems


Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Texas

M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Texas

B.S., Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

Professional Experience

Pfeiffer/VIGRE Instructor, Dept. of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University (2005-2008)

Lab Assistant II, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (2000)

Engineering Co-op, Ethicon, Inc. (1997-1999)

Featured Work

“Stability and Control of Power Systems with High Penetrations of Inverter-Based Resources: An Accessible Review of Current Knowledge and Open Questions,” Solar Energy (2020, at press)

Maximizing Distributed Energy Resource Value for All Stakeholders, NREL Technical Report (2020)

Electricity Demand Projections and Demand Response, LA100 Advisory Group Meeting (2020)

The Evolving Nature of Grid Energy, Greenbuild International Conference and Expo (2019)

Potential Roles for Demand Response in High-Growth Electric Systems with Increasing Shares of Renewable Generation, NREL Technical Report (2018)

The Demand-side Grid (dsgrid) Model Documentation, NREL Technical Report (2018)

Integrating Solar into Florida’s Power System: Potential Roles for Flexibility," Solar Energy (2018)

The Value of Demand Response in Florida,” The Electricity Journal (2017)

IGMS: An Integrated ISO-to-Appliance Scale Grid Modeling System,” IEEE Transactions on the Smart Grid-Special Issue on High Performance Computing (HPC) Applications for a More Resilient and Efficient Power Grid (2017)

Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning, NREL Technical Report (2016)

On the Inclusion of Energy-Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study, NREL Technical Report (2015)

Cloud-Based Model Calibration Using OpenStudio: Preprint, eSim (2014)

Scripted Building Energy Modeling and Analysis, IBPSA-USA (2012)

Enumerating a Diverse Set of Building Designs Using Discrete Optimization, SimBuild (2010)

Fixed-Point Continuation Applied to Compressed Sensing: Implementation and Numerical Experiments,” Journal of Computational Mathematics (2010)

General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document, NREL Technical Report (2009)

Grocery Store 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document, NREL Technical (2009)

Fixed-Point Continuation for l1-minimization: Methodology and Convergence,” SIAM Journal on Optimization (2008)

"Case Studies for a First-Order Robust Nonlinear Programming Formulation,” Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications (2007)

Numerical Methods for d-Parametric Nonlinear Programming with Chemical Process Control and Optimization Applications,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas (2005)

Multi-Parametric Nonlinear Programming and the Evaluation of Implicit Optimization Model Adequacy,” IFAC Proceedings Volumes (2004)

Subspace Model Predictive Control and a Case Study, Proceedings of the American Control Conference (2002)

Selected Software