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Ryan France is a scientist in the III-V Multijunctions group at NREL. He has investigated growth of new materials such as GaAsBi and GaInNAs by molecular beam epitaxy and of lattice-mismatched III-V materials by metal-organic vapor-phase deposition. He has researched dislocations in strained, atomically ordered, III-V material, and has used metamorphic buffers for high-efficiency 3- and 4-junction inverted metamorphic multijunction devices. Also, he previously researched single- and multicrystalline silicon solar cells at the University of New South Wales and recently participated in an NREL-Fraunhofer ISE research exchange where he investigated III-V-on-Si growth and multijunction devices at ISE.

Research Interests

  • Metamorphic Epitaxy for Multijunction Solar Cells
  • High-efficiency multijunction solar cells
  • Heteroepitaxy/integration of dissimilar materials
  • Strain, dislocation/material interaction, and lattice-mismatched devices


Ph.D. Materials Science, Colorado School of Mines

M.S. Electrical Engineering, Boston University

B.S. Applied Physics, Washington University in St. Louis

Featured Work

R.M. France, F. Dimroth, T.J. Grassman, and R.R. King, “Metamorphic epitaxy for multijunction solar cells,” MRS Bulletin 41, 202 (2016). DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2016.25

R.M. France et al., “Design flexibility of ultra-high efficiency four-junction inverted metamorphic solar cells,” J. Photovolt. 6, 578 (2016). DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2015.7356439

R.M. France, W.E. McMahon, and H.L. Guthrey, “Critical thickness of atomically ordered III-V alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 151903 (2015). DOI: 10.1063/1.4933092

R.M. France, W.E. McMahon, A.G. Norman, J. Simon, J.F. Geisz, D.J. Friedman, and M.J. Romero, “Lattice-mismatched 0.7-eV GaInAs solar cells grown on GaAs using GaInP compositionally graded buffers,” J. Photovoltaics 4, 190 (2014). DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2013.2281724


View all NREL publications for Ryan France.