Systems Analysis

NREL's hydrogen systems analysis activities provide direction, insight, and support for the development, demonstration, and deployment of a broad range of hydrogen technologies.

Analysis focuses on hydrogen production, storage, and delivery systems for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) as well as stationary fuel cells and emerging-market applications such as material handling and backup power.

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H2FAST: Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool

Delivers in-depth financial analysis for hydrogen fueling stations.

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The Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) model integrates detailed geographic data, hydrogen infrastructure and supply chain costs, sustainability metrics, and financial analyses within an optimization framework.

NREL's hydrogen systems analysts evaluate R&D goals and perform resource assessments, techno-economic comparisons, market-potential projections, and financial modeling of stakeholder decisions and investment risks. Analysts also develop least-cost scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure rollout in support of the large-scale deployment of FCEVs.

NREL hosts stakeholder workshops to increase coordination among decision makers, raise awareness, develop strategic thinking, and provide input to improve analysis modeling activities.

Learn more about NREL's hydrogen systems analysis data and tools.


The following webinars from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office include presentations by NREL systems analysis staff.

Pipeline Blending CRADA techno-economic analysis BlendPATH Webinar (January 2024). This webinar includes a demonstration on how BlendPATH is used to conduct a case-by-case techno-economic analysis of preparing natural gas transmission pipeline to blend hydrogen.

H2IQ Hour HyBlend Initiative (October 2023). This webinar included an overview of hydrogen blending materials and analysis research conducted under the Department of Energy's HyBlend initiative.

H2IQ Hour Hydrogen Analysis Lite Production (H2A-Lite) and Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) Model Overview and Demonstration (November 2022). This webinar included an overview and demonstration of H2A-Lite and H2FAST and how they provide, respectively, high-level techno-economic view of different hydrogen production technologies and convenient, in-depth financial analysis of hydrogen systems.

Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies (August 2014). This webinar explores opportunities for multi-sector integration using hydrogen systems as well as the capability and cost effectiveness of integrating hydrogen systems into electricity markets.

DOE Analysis Related to H2USA (July 2013). This webinar reviews analysis capabilities supporting hydrogen infrastructure expansion efforts associated with the H2USA public-private collaboration.

Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) Model Summary and Demonstration (February 2017). This webinar details how H2FAST's financial model is used for evaluating business cases and risk of investments in hydrogen infrastructure. 

Overview of Station Analysis Tools Developed in Support of H2USA (May 2015). This webinar provides a basic introduction to two new models designed to address key technical and financial barriers to hydrogen fueling infrastructure deployment the Hydrogen Refueling Station Analysis Model (HRSAM) and the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST).


The following technical reports, workshop proceedings, journal articles, conference papers, and presentations provide more information about NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell system analysis activities and findings.

Technical Reports and Workshop Proceedings

National Hydrogen Scenarios: How Many Stations, Where, and When, NREL Technical Report (2017)

California Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Hydrogen Near-Term Business Case Evaluation, NREL Technical Report (2016)

Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets, NREL Technical Report (2016)

Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services, 2015 Hydrogen Energy Storage Workshop (2015)

Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling, NREL Technical Report (2014)

Novel Electrolyzer Applications: Providing More Than Just Hydrogen, NREL Technical Report (2014)

Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States, NREL Technical Report (2014)

SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering, NREL Technical Report (2013)

Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates, NREL Technical Report (2013)

Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources, NREL Technical Report (2013)

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues, NREL Technical Report (2013)

Wind to Hydrogen in California: Case Study, NREL Technical Report (2012)

Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions, Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop (2012)

U.S. Geographic Analysis of the Cost of Hydrogen from Electrolysis, NREL Technical Report (2011)

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization, NREL Technical Report (2011)

International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy (IPHE) Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings, The International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy Workshop (2010)

Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report, NREL Technical Report (2010)

Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage, NREL Technical Report (2009)

Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2, NREL Technical Report (2009)

Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen Workshop Proceedings, Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen Workshop (2008)

Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, NREL Technical Report (2008)

Journal Articles, Conference Papers, and Book Chapters

Techno-economic analysis of offshore wind PEM water electrolysis for H2 production, Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering (2022)

System and technoeconomic analysis of solar thermochemical hydrogen production, Renewable Energy (2022)

Cost of Long-Distance Energy Transmission by Different Carriers, iScience (2021)

Chapter 10 - Economic considerations for hydrogen production with a focus on polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis, Electrochemical Power Sources: Fundamentals, Systems, and Applications (2021)

Methods Identifying Cost Reduction Potential for Water Electrolysis Systems, Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering (2021)

Techno-Economic Analysis of Long-Duration Energy Storage and Flexible Power Generation Technologies to Support High-Variable Renewable Energy Grids, Joule (2021)

Beyond Short-Duration Energy Storage, Nature Energy (2021)

Benefit Analysis of Long-Duration Energy Storage in Power Systems with High Renewable Energy Shares, Frontiers in Energy Research (2020)

Multi-Input, Multi-Output Hybrid Energy Systems, Joule (2020)

Optimal Design of Solar-Driven Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Systems Within Electricity Markets, Journal of Power Sources (2020)

Flexible Grid-Based Electrolysis Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cell Vehicles Reduces Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Applied Energy (2020)

Chapter 10: Economics and Perspectives of Hydrogen Electroproduction Techniques, Electrochemical Methods for Hydrogen Production (2019)

Economic Analysis of a High-Pressure Urban Pipeline Concept (HyLine) for Delivering Hydrogen to Retail Fueling Stations, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment (2019)

Hydrogen's Expanding Role in the Energy System, August 2019 CEP Magazine (2019)

Cost Competitiveness of Electrolytic Hydrogen, Joule (2019)

Fuel Cell Backup Power System for Grid Service and Microgrid in Telecommunication Applications, Journal of Energy Resources Technologies (2019)

Production of Synthetic Natural Gas From Carbon Dioxide and Renewably Generated Hydrogen: A Techno-Economic Analysis of a Power-to-Gas Strategy, Journal of Energy Resources Technologies (2018)

Quantifying the Flexibility of Hydrogen Production Systems to Support Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration, Journal of Power Sources (2018)

Modeling Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure to Support Passenger Vehicles, Energies (2018)

Optimizing Investments in Coupled Offshore Wind -Electrolytic Hydrogen Storage Systems in Denmark, Journal of Power Sources (2017)

Investing in Alternative Fuel Infrastructure: Insights for California from Stakeholder Interviews, Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting (2017)

Hydrogen Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines, Handbook of Clean Energy Systems (2015)

Hydrogen Energy Storage Systems for Grid and Community Applications, Handbook of Clean Energy Systems (2015)

Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles, SAE 2014 World Congress and Exhibition (2014)

Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the Use of Hydrogen Fuel Cells, SAE 2013 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress (2013)

Cost Comparison of Wind Energy Delivered as Electricity or Hydrogen for Vehicles, SAE 2013 World Congress and Exhibition (2013)

Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles, 31st USAEE/IAEE North American Conference (2013)

Market Transformation Lessons for Hydrogen from the Early History of the Manufactured Gas Industry, Hydrogen Energy and Vehicle Systems (2012)

Design and Technoeconomic Performance Analysis of a 1 MW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Polygeneration System for Combined Production of Heat, Hydrogen, and Power, Journal of Power Sources (2012)

Leveling Intermittent Renewable Energy Production through Biomass Gasification-Based Hybrid Systems, Journal of Energy Resources Technology (2011)

Role of Fuel Carbon Intensity in Achieving 2050 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals within the Light-Duty Vehicle Sector, Environmental Science and Technology (2011)

Co-Evolution of Alternative Fuel Infrastructure and Vehicles: A Study of the Experience of Argentina with Compressed Natural Gas, Energy Policy (2011)


Meeting the Needs of Hydrogen Infrastructure: Financial and Sustainability Analysis, NREL Presentation (2017)

Incorporating Resilience into Transportation Planning, NREL Presentation (2017)

Sustainability Analysis: Hydrogen Regional Sustainability (HyReS), NREL Presentation (2017)

Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) Updates with Analysis of 101st Station, NREL Presentation (2017)

Regional Supply of Hydrogen, NREL Presentation (2017)

Resource Availability for Hydrogen Production, NREL Presentation (2017)

National FCEV and Hydrogen Fueling Station Scenarios, NREL Presentation (2016)

Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis, NREL Presentation (2015)

Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies, NREL Presentation (2015)

Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST), NREL Presentation (2015)

Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL, NREL Presentation (2015)

SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering, NREL Presentation (2015)

Hydrogen Infrastructure Expansion: Consumer Demand and Cost-Reduction Potential, NREL Presentation (2014)

Hydrogen Infrastructure Cost Estimates and Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipelines, NREL Presentation (2012)

Infrastructure Analysis Tools: A Focus on Cash Flow Analysis, NREL Presentation (2012)

Comparing Infrastructure Costs for Hydrogen and Electricity, NREL Presentation (2012)

Infrastructure Analysis of Early Market Transition of Fuel Cell Vehicles, NREL Presentation (2012)

Rethinking U.S. Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Scenarios: What Comes Next?, NREL Presentation (2011)

Hydrogen for Energy Storage Analysis Overview, NREL Presentation (2010)

Reliable Muddle: Transportation Scenarios for the 80% Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goal for 2050, NREL Presentation (2009)

Influence of Building Location on Combined Heat and Power/ Hydrogen (Tri-Generation) System Cost, Hydrogen Output and Efficiency, NREL Presentation (2009)


Mark Chung

Hydrogen Systems Analysis Lead