Skip to main content

Offshore Wind Research

For more than 8 years, NREL has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy to become an international leader in offshore wind energy research. National Wind Technology Center researchers are perpetually exploring new wind power concepts, materials, and components as well as how those innovations perform and affect the energy system as a whole.

A photo of several rows of wind turbines standing in the ocean with the sun overhead.


NREL's offshore wind turbine research capabilities focus on critical areas that reflect the long-term needs of the industry and the U.S. Department of Energy, including controls, reliability, modeling and simulation, and validation and certification.

A photo of an offshore wind turbine with a yellow foundation floating in the ocean.


Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center use advanced control methods to design innovative controls for offshore floating wind turbines to maximize energy production, reduce structural loads, limit platform motion, and increase reliability.

A photo of many offshore wind turbines in the ocean with a small ship at the base of one in the foreground.


NREL's offshore reliability capabilities include drivetrain analysis, data collection and analysis, and evaluating of a variety of technologies and systems. NREL also collaborates with domestic and international industry and research and development partners to improve offshore reliability.

A close-up, aerial photo of an offshore wind turbine with three turbines and blue ocean in the background.

Design Methods, Tools, and Standards

NREL has developed and maintains robust open-source modeling tools capable of simulating a wide range of offshore wind systems. The two primary modeling efforts include computer-aided engineering tools and systems engineering tools. NREL researchers work with industry partners to conduct technical assistance, validate and verify models, and engage in collaborative research. Learn more about NREL's wind modeling software suites: FAST v8 and WISDEM®.

A photo of a gray ocean with a fishing boat in the foreground and 12 offshore wind turbines in the background and blue sky above.

Energy and Economic Analysis

Offshore wind represents an immense and virtually untapped U.S. renewable power resource. NREL's analysis of offshore wind energy in the United States helps illuminate key industry needs, opportunities, and anticipated impacts—including jobs, reduced marginal electricity prices, lower transmission needs, the ability to hedge against fossil-fuel volatility, and many others.

A photo of a windsurfer on the ocean with a row of offshore wind turbines in the background.

Technology Research Validation and Certification

Applying 35 years of wind turbine validation expertise, NREL has developed instrumentation for high-resolution measurements at sea and maintains offshore-trained engineers and technicians to verify turbine performance and dynamic responses.

A map of the United States, excluding Alaska, that color-codes the offshore wind potential of coastal areas, including the Great Lakes region, at a 90-meter hub height.

Resource Characterization, Forecasting, and Maps

NREL engineers have worked with industry to better understand the uncertainties in the wind resource characterization process and standardize best practices for optimal energy production estimates. National Wind Technology Center scientists and engineers are leading efforts in resource mapping, remote sensor measurement and development, and forecasting that are essential for the development of offshore wind.

A photo of four offshore wind turbines in the ocean at night with a full moon shining between the blades.

Grid Integration

Experts conduct in-depth studies of the impacts of and needs for integrating offshore wind into the nation's land-based utility grid. In addition, NREL's controllable grid interface validation system can reduce certification evaluation time and costs while providing system engineers with a better understanding of how wind turbines react to disturbances on the electric power system.

A photo of a row of 20 offshore wind turbines in blue ocean with blue sky and clouds above.

Wind Power Plant Modeling and Simulation

Engineers have developed software with state-of-the-art simulation and analysis capabilities that allows industry stakeholders to perform a wide variety of optimization studies for lowering the cost of energy, including specific modules for modeling offshore plant design and cost.

Learn more about Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) and the Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA).

A photo of a crane placing an offshore wind turbine base onto its foundation as the sun sets over the water.

Technology Development

Offshore technology development is aimed at finding technological solutions to lowering the cost of manufacturing and installing utility-scale wind power plants in U.S. waters. Deployment is facilitated by clarifying functional requirements, loading environments, and permitting criteria with key stakeholders for both fixed-bottom and floating systems.

A photo of a golden ocean and cloudy sky with eight offshore wind turbines silhouetted in black.

Manufacturing and Supply Chain

NREL conducts technology characterization assessments for offshore wind manufacturing technologies and trends, deployment barriers, and competitiveness factors that affect the U.S. wind turbine supply chain and technology investment decisions for offshore wind power plants.

A photo of a single offshore wind turbine with a pipeline in front of it and several birds in the foreground.

Siting Considerations and Environmental Impacts

NREL evaluates energy potential and technical site characteristics for offshore wind development areas as well as siting considerations, such as shipping lanes, marine sanctuaries, and commercial fishing areas. Together with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and other partners, NREL researches offshore wind environmental issues.

A photo of two men in the nacelle of an offshore wind turbine making repairs; ocean and additional turbines are in the background.

Workforce Development and Education

NREL performs in-depth analysis on the domestic wind energy workforce and has published numerous reports on jobs and economic development for fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind using the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model.

Learn more about offshore wind research.

Contact Us

Offshore Wind Lead

As offshore wind comes closer to deployment around the coastal United States, the research lead at NREL takes on the responsibility of outreach and information dissemination, as well as overseeing research to ensure the future of offshore wind in America.

Photo of Walt Musial

Walt Musial

Manager, Offshore Wind