Electric Vehicle Grid Integration

Top photo of electric vehicle charging next to solar panels and building. Bottom photo of person holding charging nozzle next to car with open front compartment.

NREL is developing and evaluating fully integrated systems that connect electric vehicles (EVs), transportation infrastructure, power grids, buildings, and renewable energy sources.

In tandem, researchers are examining opportunities and impacts associated with a full range of charging technologies—from home-based Level 1 charging to extreme fast charging.

Research and Development

EV smart charging at scale

Site-integrated EV charging

Wireless EV charging

Medium- and heavy-duty EV charging

EV grid impacts

Cybersecurity for EV grid integration


NREL researchers publish journal articles, conference papers, and reports about electric vehicle grid integration.


Integrated Data and Analysis Tools

Bolstered by world-class computational science and high-performance computing capabilities, NREL's integrated suite of data and analysis tools inform the development of innovative EV grid integration strategies.

EVI-EnSite: Electric Vehicle Infrastructure – Energy Estimation and Site Optimization Tool

Design, modeling, and analysis tool for conducting studies related to the development of EV charging station infrastructure as well as the operation and quality of service at such stations

EVI-InMotion: Electric Vehicle Infrastructure – In Motion Tool

Simulation tool for planning, optimizing, and analyzing the feasibility of charging electric vehicles while driving on electric roads

EVI-Pro: Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool

Forecasting tool for estimating how much EV charging infrastructure is needed in a designated area to meet a given demand

EVI-X Modeling Suite of EV Charging Infrastructure Analysis Tools

Integrated modeling suite for informing the development of large-scale EV charging infrastructure deployments—from the regional, state, and national levels to site and facility operations

Fleet DNA: Commercial Fleet Vehicle Operating Data

Clearinghouse of medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet operations data for optimizing the design of advanced vehicle technologies or for selecting vehicles for given applications

HIVE: Highly Integrated Vehicle Ecosystem Simulation Framework

Multi-model tool for simulating mobility-service-provider fleet operations to identify the number and types of vehicles needed for a given travel demand, to reduce traffic congestion, and more

REopt: Renewable Energy Integration and Optimization Platform

Techno-economic model for optimizing energy systems for buildings, campuses, communities, and microgrids

TSDC: Transportation Secure Data Center

Repository of detailed travel data from various surveys and studies, with robust data sets to support research while protecting individual participant privacy

See our full collection of tools.


NREL's EV grid integration research leverages state-of-the-art labs at the Energy Systems Integration Facility, drawing on crosscutting grid modernization and power system design capabilities in concert with world-class, high-performance computing capabilities.

NREL's nationally unique Electric Vehicle Research Infrastructure (EVRI) evaluation platform enables researchers as well as industry and utility stakeholders to study and develop optimal strategies for coordinating EVs with buildings, the grid, and other energy systems. At EVRI, researchers are developing the control strategies needed to optimize a new generation of transportation technologies within the context of the larger energy ecosystem.

Enabling the characterization and development of building-integrated extreme fast charging systems, EVRI houses flexible electrical infrastructure, including AC and DC charging with a variety of voltage systems; connection to grid and photovoltaic simulators and other distributed energy resources for grid interactivity research; real-time digital simulation (grid- and vehicle-side); and diverse charging and energy storage equipment, including two 350-kW chargers (with two more expected soon), four level-2 chargers, a 50-kW charger, and a 40-kWh battery energy storage system.


Andrew Meintz

Project Lead, Electric Vehicle Grid Integration