Combinatorial Depositions

NREL has a variety of combinatorial thin-film deposition instruments for high-throughput experiments.

Co-Sputtering of Oxides and Nitrides

Combinatorial Chamber:  No. 5

Materials: Nitrides

Substrates: <4" diameter, <800C

Targets: 2" circular

Gases: Ar, N, N2/H2

Base pressure: 10-9-10-8 Torr

Features: Load lock, N plasma source, cryoshroud, and in-vacuo source shifts

Publications:

Design of Metastable Tin Titanium Nitride Semiconductor Alloys, Chem. Mater. (2017)

Synthesis of Lanthanum Tungsten Oxynitride Perovskite Thin Films, Advanced Electronic Materials (2019)

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 5

Combinatorial Chamber: No. 6

Materials: Oxides, nitrides, and oxynitrides

Substrates: <6" square, <600C

Targets: 3" circular

Gases: Ar, O, N, N2/H2

Base pressure: 10-9-10-8 Torr

Features: load lock, N plasma source, and vacuum transfer

Publications:

Combinatorial Investigation of Structural and Optical Properties of Cation-Disordered ZnGeN2, J. Mat. Chem. C (2020)

Combinatorial Synthesis of Magnesium Tin Nitride Semiconductors, J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2020)

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 6

Combinatorial Chamber: No. 9

Materials: Nitrides and oxynitrides

Substrates: <4" diameter, <1000C

Targets: 2" circular

Gases: Ar, O, N, N2/H2

Base pressure: 10-9-10-8 Torr

Features: N hollow cathode plasma source, LN2 substrate cooling, in-vacuo source angle adjustment, and individual gas control for all metal sources

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 9

Combinatorial Chamber: No. 10

Materials: Nitrides

Substrates: <4" diameter, <800C

Targets: 3" circular

Gases: Ar, N

Base pressure: 10-9-10-8 Torr

Features: Dedicated to (Al,Sc)N and related materials

Publications:

Reduced Coercive Field in Epitaxial Thin Film of Ferroelectric Wurtzite Al0.7Sc0.3N, Applied Physics Letters (2021)

Understanding Reproducibility of Sputter Deposited Metastable Ferroelectric Wurtzite Al0.6Sc0.4N Films using In‐situ Optical Emission Spectrometry, Rapid Research Letters (2021)

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 10

Co-Sputtering of Other Materials

Combinatorial Chamber: No. 1

Materials:  Metals, carbides and nitrides

Substrates: < 3" diameter, < 800C

Targets: 2" circular

Gases: Ar, O, N, N2/H2

Base pressure: 10-7-10-6 Torr

Features: N/O plasma source

Publications:

Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Realization of New Stable Inorganic Materials Using the Inverse Design Approach, J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2013)

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Rotating Disk Electrode Measurements of Smooth Sputtered Fe-N-C Films, Applied Surface Science (2020)

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 1

Combinatorial Chamber: No. 4

Materials: Chalcogenides and oxychalcogenides

Substrates: <4" diameter, <800C

Targets: 2" circular

Gases: Ar, O, Ar/H2S

Base pressure: 10-8-10-7 Torr

Features: Load lock, S plasma source, vacuum transfer, programmable shutters, and source-specific quartz crystal microbalances

Publications:

Self-Regulated Growth and Tunable Properties of CuSbS2 Solar Absorbers, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2015)

Negative-Pressure Polymorphs Made by Heterostructural Alloying, Science Advances (2018)

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 4

Combinatorial Chamber: No. 7

Materials: Li-containing materials

Substrates: <4" diameter, <800C

Targets: 3" circular

Gases: Ar, O, N

Base pressure: 10-9-10-8 Torr

Features: Glove box and co-evaporation

Publications:

Chemistry of Electrolyte Reduction on Lithium Silicide, J. Phys. Chem. C (2019)

Investigating the Effects of Lithium Phosphorous Oxynitride Coating on Blended Solid Polymer Electrolytes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2020)

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 7

Combinatorial Chamber: No. 8

Materials: Phosphides

Substrates: <4" diameter, <800C

Targets: 2" circular

Gases: Ar, Ar/PH3

Base pressure: 10-9-10-8 Torr

Features: Load-lock

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 8

Combinatorial Pulsed Laser Deposition

Combinatorial Chamber: No. 3

Materials: Oxides

Substrates: <4" diameter, <800C

Targets: 1" or 2" circular

Gases: Ar, O, N, N2/H2

Base pressure: 10-9-10-8 Torr

Features: Load lock

Publications:

High-Throughput Experimental Study of Wurtzite Mn1–xZnxO Alloys for Water Splitting Applications, ACS Omega (2019)

Double-Site Ce Substitution of (Ba,Sr)MnO3 Perovskites for Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production, ACS Energy Letters (2021)

Photo of combinatorial chamber No. 3

Additional Publications

Synthesis of Tunable SnS-TaS2 Nanoscale Superlattices, Nano Letters (2020)

Thin film Synthesis and Properties of Copper Nitride, a Metastable Semiconductor, Mater. Horiz. (2014)

Zn–Ni–Co–O Wide-Band-Gap P-type Conductive Oxides with High Work Functions, MRS Communications (2011)

Contacts

Sage Bauers

Staff Scientist

Sage.Bauers@nrel.gov
303-275-4826