Modeling, Mapping, and Analysis Consortium

The NREL-led Modeling, Mapping, and Analysis Consortium (MMAC) offers insights to secure domestic manufacturing and energy supply chains for a clean energy transition.

A map of the U.S. with overlaying gear images labeled: 1. Raw Materials, 2. Refining, 3. Component Manufacturing, 4. System Assembly, 5. Clean Energy Technologies, and 6. Recycling/End of Life.

Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Manufacturing and Energy Supply Chains, the MMAC brings together state-of-the-art research capabilities from NREL, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory.


A secure and resilient energy sector industrial base is crucial to the modernization of the nation's infrastructure in support of the energy transition. MMAC leverages cross-collaborative capabilities, a robust analysis framework, and unmatched access to complex datasets to identify potential supply chain gaps and opportunities. MMAC's objective analysis of the material supply and manufacturing base guides federal investments to strengthen domestically focused and globally resilient clean energy supply chains.

Icons on blue and gray backgrounds.


Global installed manufacturing
Material prices
Minerals mapping
Supply chain mapping


Supply chain bottleneck assessment
System dynamics modeling
Agent-based modeling
Deployment projections
Material flow equations
Spatial modeling
Discrete event modeling
Logistics optimization


Global trade flows
Life cycle analysis
Techno-economic analysis
Workforce analysis
End-of-life disposal and recycling
Energy, equity, environmental, and social justice
Material flow analysis
Competitiveness analysis
Economic impact
Policy impact analysis
Implementation support

As part of MMAC, NREL researchers are analyzing the global flow of materials throughout the energy sector industrial base to evaluate supply chain gaps and investment opportunities. Mapped for cobalt in the graphic below, this example illustrates the movement of materials throughout the lithium-ion battery supply chain, from mineral extraction to electric vehicle application.

A flow graphic of 2021 Global Cobalt Supply Chain Flows tracks materials around the world through: mining, recycling, and preprocessing; refining; cathodes, materials and other manufacturing; battery manufacturing; EV manufacturing; and EV use. 45% of global cobalt goes to metallurgical, ceramic, and other uses. 32% of global cobalt goes to consumer and stationary storage. 23% of global cobalt goes to EVs.
This graphic illustrates the flow of cobalt through the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), China, Europe, the rest of Asia (ROAsia), the rest of the world (ROW), and non-Li-ion EV battery flow. This data comes from NREL Analysis, USGS 2022 Mineral Commodity Summaries, International Trade Centre, and the Battery Material Manufacturing database “Global Cobalt Outlook 2020–2030.”
*Mining, Recycling, and Preprocessing products includes ores, naturally occurring solids containing cobalt, and mattes and intermediates (30–100% cobalt).

Engage With Us

MMAC relies on industry support to provide rounded insights on the needs and opportunities for clean energy technologies. Share your feedback, get involved, or ask questions about our work by contacting