Multi-Timescale Integrated Dynamic and Scheduling

NREL researchers developed the Multi-Timescale Integrated Dynamic and Scheduling (MIDAS) framework to address the challenge of operating the grid with extremely high renewable penetrations by bridging the modeling and analysis gaps of different timescales between economics, reliability, and stability of grid operation.

Electrical engineering researchers display images from the Multi-Timescale Integrated Dynamic and Scheduling (MIDAS) software.

MIDAS-Solar will be the first of its kind framework to model and analyze the impact of photovoltaic (PV) systems on system dynamics, reliability, and economics at all time spectrums. MIDAS-Solar will:

  • Provide information about the impacts of PV on grid economics and reliability simultaneously
  • Enable PV to provide grid services for an extreme solar future by seamlessly studying technical feasibility and economic feasibility
  • Help stakeholders understand what types of advanced controls PV can support grid operation (control), when PV is needed to provide grid reliability services (impact analysis), the revenue stream for PV to become a grid-service provider, and how to incentivize PV (market).


  • A closed-loop simulation framework that can simulate economic scheduling timescales to dynamic stability analysis timescales
  • Machine learning-based stability assessment
  • Electromagnetic transient modeling and analysis for large-scale power systems
  • MIDAS power hardware-in-the-loop testbed

Multi-Timescale Integrated Dynamics and Scheduling

MIDAS-Solar will develop a multi-timescale grid model and an integrated PV model to seamlessly simulate solar PV variability and its impact on power systems operations from economic scheduling timescales (day-ahead to hours) to dynamic response analysis (seconds to subseconds).

For schedules with very high levels of inverter-based resources, up to and including 100%, stability of grid controls will be evaluated through targeted electromagnetic transient simulations and power hardware-in-the-loop simulations of key transient events at key schedule points. See the open-source generic PSCAD models of grid-forming and grid-following inverters.

Machine-learning based stability assessment methods are proposed to identify the stability margins (small signal stability, transient stability, and frequency stability) based on the steady-state dispatch information for a selected power grid.

Multi-Timescale Test Systems

To address the challenges of high renewables integration, NREL researchers developed a set of test systems by providing one-on-one models and data for scheduling, power flow, and dynamic study. The test systems can be found in the Test Case Repository for High Renewable Study.

MIDAS Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed

The MIDAS power hardware-in-the-loop test bed can perform real-time power simulations across multi-timescales, from subcycle electromagnetic transients to grid dynamics to economic dispatch simulations. High-resolution grid simulation with realistic dispatch conditions can eliminate the risk of service interruptions and damage to equipment.


Final Technical Report: Multi-Timescale Integrated Dynamics and Scheduling for Solar (MIDAS-Solar), NREL Technical Report (2023)

Island Power Systems with High Levels of Inverter-Based Resources – Stability and Reliability Challenges, IEEE Electrification Magazine (2021)

Secondary Frequency Regulation from Variable Generation Through Uncertainty Decomposition: An Economic and Reliability Perspective, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy (2021)

Developing a Reduced 240-Bus WECC Dynamic Model for Frequency Response Study of High Renewable Integration, IEEE Power and Energy Society Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (2020)

Multiple Timescale PV Model for Dynamics and Scheduling, Energy Systems Integration Group Fall Workshop (2019)

View all NREL publications about MIDAS.


Jin Tan

Senior Engineer