ADOPT: Automotive Deployment Options Projection Tool
Developed by NREL, the Automotive Deployment Options Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model. ADOPT estimates vehicle technology improvement impacts on future U.S. light-duty vehicle sales, energy use, and emissions.
ADOPT provides consumer choice estimates based on questions like:
- How much impact do lower battery prices have on electric vehicle sales?
- How quickly would the market adopt a co-optimized engine/fuel combination that achieves a 10% efficiency improvement?
- How do fuel prices impact the electric vehicle/plug-in hybrid electric vehicle sales mix?
- How does vehicle lightweighting impact powertrain sales?
Starting with the majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims to fully represent the market, ADOPT applies numerous inputs—technology improvements, fuel prices, and vehicle purchase incentives—over time. ADOPT then estimates sales based on the variable weighted value of key attributes, including vehicle price, fuel cost per mile, acceleration, size, and range. ADOPT also considers consumer income level as well as regulations and standards that influence sales and average fuel economy.
ADOPT incorporates the FASTSim vehicle powertrain model to apply specified technology improvements to vehicles over time, and to create new model options by combining high-selling powertrains and high-selling vehicle platforms.
NREL has extensively validated the tool and its consumer preference trade-offs to ensure confidence in the results.
The Automotive Deployment Options Projection Tool is available for download as an executable file and requires the use of Microsoft Windows and Excel.Register to Download ADOPT
While NREL does not provide technical support for ADOPT, we welcome your feedback on the tool. Please email your feedback or report any problems to email@example.com.
These publications provide examples of how ADOPT has been used to estimate technology improvement impacts on sales, energy use, and emissions.
Connected Autonomous Electric Vehicles as Enablers for Low-Carbon Future
Authors: Binod Vaidya and Hussein Mouftah
Book chapter: Energy Efficiency in Smart Grids (March 2019)
The Demand-Side Grid (dsgrid) Model Documentation
Authors: E. Hale, H. Horsey, B. Johnson, M. Muratori, E. Wilson, B. Borlaug, C. Christensen, A. Farthing, D. Hettinger, A. Parker, J. Robertson, M. Rossol, G. Stephen, E. Wood, and B. Vairamohane
Report: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (August 2018)
Light-Duty Vehicle Attribute Projections (Years 2015–2030)
Authors: E. Kontou, M. Melaina, and A. Brooker
Report: California Energy Commission (July 2018)
Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) Validation Report
Authors: J. Gonder, A. Brooker, E. Wood, and M. Moniot
Report: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (July 2018)
Electrification Futures Study: Scenarios of Electric Technology Adoption and Power Consumption for the United States
Authors: T. Mai, P. Jadun, J. Logan, C. McMillan, M. Muratori, D. Steinberg, L. Vimmerstedt, R. Jones, B. Haley, and B. Nelson
Report: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (June 2018)
Assessing Energy Impacts of Connected and Automated Vehicles at the U.S. National Level—Preliminary Bounds and Proposed Methods
Authors: T. Stephens, J. Auld, Y. Chen, J. Gonder, E. Kontou, Z. Lin, F. Xie, A. Mohammadian, R. Shabanpour, and D. Gohlke
Book chapter: Road Vehicle Automation (June 2018)
Biomass Market Dynamics Supporting the Large‐Scale Deployment of High‐Octane Fuel Production in the United States
Authors: P. Lamers, R. Nguyen, D. Hartley, J. Hansen, and E. Searcy
Journal: GCB Bioenergy (March 2018)
Development of Fleet Energy Savings Evaluation Tools for SMART Mobility: Smart Vehicle Energy Technology (SVET) Model for Passenger Fleets and Freight Fleet Level Energy Estimation Tool (FFLEET) for Freight Fleets
Authors: T. LaClair and A. Moore
Report: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (February 2018)
Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050
Authors: P. Jadun, C. McMillan, D. Steinberg, M. Muratori, L. Vimmerstedt, and T. Mai
Report: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (December 2017)
Comparison of Vehicle Choice Models
Authors: T. Stephens, R. Levinson, A. Brooker, C. Liu, Z. Lin, A. Birky, and E. Kontou
Report: Argonne National Laboratory (October 2017)
Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options
Authors: J. Han, M. Wang, A. Elgowainy, and V. DiVita
Report: Argonne National Laboratory (August 2016)
Summary of High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Study
Authors: T. Theiss, T. Alleman, A. Brooker, A. Elgowainy, G. Fioroni, J. Han, S. Huff, C. Johnson, M. Kass, P. Leiby, R. Martinez, R. McCormick, K. Moriarty, E. Newes, G. Oladosu, J. Szybist, J. Thomas, M. Wang, and B. West
Report: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (July 2016)
High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment
Authors: C. Johnson, E. Newes, A. Brooker, R. McCormick, S. Peterson, P. Leiby, R. Martinez, G. Oladosu, and M. Brown
Report: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (December 2015)
SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering
Authors: B. Bush, M. Melaina, and M. Penev
Report: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (September 2013)
How to Cite ADOPT
If you use ADOPT for work described in a publication, please notify us and include this citation in your publication:
Brooker, A., Gonder, J., Lopp, S., and Ward, J., "ADOPT: A Historically Validated Light Duty Vehicle Consumer Choice Model," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0974, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0974.
For more information about ADOPT, subscribe for periodic email updates or refer to this technical paper—ADOPT: A Historically Validated Light-Duty Vehicle Consumer Choice Model.