Primary Reference Cell Calibrations

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Primary reference cells are calibrated for in-house use and for use by other national laboratories to provide clients and partners with a path for traceability to standards.

Our laboratory is one of only four facilities in the world certified to calibrate reference cells in accordance with the World Photovoltaic Scale, and these measurements are accredited to International Organization for Standardization 17025 standards. We are the only laboratory certified to calibrate primary reference cells, secondary reference cells, secondary reference modules, cells, and modules.

Once we obtain a reference cell, we subject it to carefully devised calibration procedures that minimize errors from the temperature-dependent spectral correction

Major Instrumentation for Primary Reference Cells Measurements
System Typical Applications Special Features Light Source Wavelength Range Bandwidth
System Linearity test bed Typical Applications Determines the linearity of the short-circuit current (Isc) versus the total irradiance (Etot); 0.01-sun - several suns Special Features Agilent 6-1/2 digit multimeter; calibrated 10 ohms resistance; insensitive to the light spectra or spatial nonuniformity changing with irradiance Light Source 400-W incandescent lamp (x2) Wavelength Range 280 to 1,900 nm Bandwidth 10 nm full width at half maximum
System Eppley HF primary absolute-cavity radiometer Typical Applications Total irradiance; outdoor; 5.0° field of view Special Features Calibration: Integrating hemisphere; calibrated at the World Radiation Center (Davos, Switzerland) Light Source Sunlight Wavelength Range 300 to 3,000 nm Bandwidth >1 nm full width at half maximum
System ASD Spec-Pro spectroradiometer Typical Applications Spectral irradiance (extended using a comprehensive spectral model derived from Modtran); outdoor; 5.0° field of view Special Features VNIR: silicon photo-diode array (350 to 1000 nm)
SWIR1: InGaAs, photo-diode (1000 to 1830 nm)
SWIR2: InGaAs, photo-diode (1830 to 2500 nm)
Light Source Sunlight Wavelength Range 350 to 2,500 nm Bandwidth 3 nm (VNIR) to 10 nm (SWIR) full width at half maximum