Champion Photovoltaic Module Efficiency Chart
NREL maintains a chart of the highest confirmed conversion efficiencies for champion modules for a range of photovoltaic technologies, plotted from 1988 to the present.
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Module Chart Explanatory Notes
Modules included in this chart of the current state of the art have efficiencies that are confirmed by independent, recognized test labs—e.g., NREL, AIST, JRC-ESTI and Fraunhofer-ISE—and are reported on a standardized basis. The measurements for new entries must be with respect to Standard Test or Reporting Conditions as defined by the global reference spectrum for flat-plate devices and the direct reference spectrum for concentrator devices as listed in standards IEC 60904-3 edition 2 or ASTM G173. The reference temperature is 25°C, and the area is the module total area or the area or defined by an aperture.
Module efficiency results are provided within these families of semiconductors:
- Amorphous silicon
- GaAs III-V
- Emerging photovoltaics.
Modules are also delineated by area (square centimeters) into four clusters highlighted by colored circles:
- >14,000 cm2: large module (orange)
- 6,500–14,000 cm2: standard module (yellow)
- 800–6,500 cm2: small module (green)
- 200–800 cm2: mini-module (gray).
The most recent world record for each technology is highlighted along the right edge in a flag that contains the efficiency and the symbol of the technology. The company or group that fabricated the device for each most-recent record is bolded on the plot.
The information plotted by NREL is provided in good faith, but NREL cannot accept direct responsibility for any errors or omissions. The plot is not copyrighted and may be used in presentations and publications, with a notation that states: "This plot is courtesy of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO."
|Label||Full Name (If Different from Label)|
|ARCO||Atlantic Richfield Co.|
|ECN||Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands|
|Fraunhofer ISE||Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems|
|FirstSolar||First Solar Inc.|
|Gochermann||Gochermann Solar Technology|
|Kaneka||Kaneka Solar Energy|
|Solar Cells Inc.|
|Sandia||Sandia National Laboratories|
|UNSW||University of New South Wales|
|USSC||United Solar Systems Corp.|