Solar Supply Curves

NREL has developed an interactive map and geospatial data showing solar supply curves, which characterize the quantity and quality of solar photovoltaic (PV) resources.

Interactive Map

Note: Please view the interactive map from a desktop computer to access it. It is not visible on mobile devices.

Geospatial Data

Solar PV supply curve data are provided in .csv format and include latitude, longitude, available area, capacity potential, generation potential, generator capacity factor, and distance to interconnect.

The Open Access supply curve data only applies land area exclusions based on physical constraints (e.g., wetlands, building footprints) or for protected lands.

The Reference Access supply curve data applies a wider range of exclusions and is used by default in NREL's capacity expansion modeling.

The Limited Access supply curve data applies the most restrictive land area exclusions

Siting Regime Annual Technology Baseline Release Year Data Link
Open Access Moderate 2021 PV Open Access
Reference Access Moderate 2021 PV Reference Access
Limited Access Moderate 2021 PV Limited Access

Solar Energy Siting Regulation and Zoning Ordinances

NREL solar energy supply curves integrate local ordinances and zoning laws that influence how and where solar resources can be sited and deployed. This data has now been collected into one centralized, machine-readable database of solar siting ordinances throughout the United States at the state, county, township, and city levels.  

The database includes setbacks—or minimum distance requirements—for property lines, buildings, roads, and bodies of water, as well as height restrictions, minimum and maximum lot size, solar development bans and moratoriums, as well as other more novel siting restrictions. The interactive map below illustrates this data by ordinance type.

Note: Please view the interactive map from a desktop computer to access it. It is not visible on mobile devices.

The data were compiled based on a locality-by-locality review of zoning ordinances after completing an initial review of scholarly legal articles. Where applicable, the citations for each ordinance are included in the database spreadsheet.


2021 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook, NREL Technical Report (2021)

The Renewable Energy Potential (reV) Model: A Geospatial Platform for Technical Potential and Supply Curve Modeling, NREL Technical Report (2021)

U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis, NREL Technical Report (2012)


Anthony Lopez

Senior Researcher, Geospatial Science