Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures
NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for the analysis of raw and upgraded pyrolysis bio-oils. These standard procedures have been validated and allow for reliable bio-oil analysis.
Determination of Carbonyls in Pyrolysis Bio-Oils by Potentiometric Titration: Faix Method
This procedure uses potentiometric titration to quantify carbonyl functional groups in raw pyrolysis bio-oils. Carbonyl groups are characterized as the sum of aldehydes and ketones.
Acid Number Determination of Pyrolysis Bio-Oils Using Potentiometric Titration
This procedure measures the acidic content of bio-oils using potentiometric titration. Acid content is characterized through both the carboxylic acid number (CAN) and the total acid number (TAN).
Determination of Hydroxyl Groups in Pyrolysis Bio-Oils Using 31P NMR
This procedure uses phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) to quantify three different hydroxyl groups (-OH) in pyrolysis bio-oil: aliphatic-OH, phenolic-OH, and carboxylic-OH.
Quantification of Semi-Volatile Oxygenated Components of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)
This procedure quantifies semi-volatile oxygenated compounds present in raw bio-oils produced from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks.