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Important Publications in the Area of Photovoltaic Performance

Books

K. Emery, "Efficiency Measurements of Photovoltaic Devices," Advances in Solar Energy 7, 1992, chapter 3, Karl Böer editor.

R. DeBlasio, J. Stone, T. Surek, K. Emery, D. Myers, B. Kroposki, L. Mrig, J. Burdick, A. Czanderna, T. Strand, and C. Osterwald, "Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability," Advances in Solar Energy 10, 1995, chapter 5, Karl Böer editor, American Solar Energy Society publisher, Boulder, Colorado.

K.A. Emery, "Measurement and Characterization of Solar cells and Modules," Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, 2nd, Chap. 18, pp. 797-840, A. Luque and S. Hegedus editors, John Wiley & Sons, W. Sussex, U.K., ISBN -0-470-72169-8, 2011.

C.R. Osterwald, Standards, Calibration, and Testing of PV Modules and Solar Cells, chapter III-2 in Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition, editors Augustin McEvoy, Tom Markvart, Luis Castaner, Academic press, pp. 1045–1069, 2011, DOI: 978-0-12-385934-1.

Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Standards, Experimental Methods, and Protocols, Springer Briefs in Energy, Editors Z. Chen, H. Din, E. Miller, contributors K. Emery et al., DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-8298-7, ISBN 978-14614-8297-0, 2013.

C.R. Osterwald and G. Siefer, "CPV Multijunction Solar Cell Characterization," Chapter 10 in Handbook on Concentrator Photovoltaic Technology, 1st ed., C. Algora, I. Rey-Stolle, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 589-614, May 2016, ISBN: 978-1-118-47296-5

Tutorials

K. Emery, Tutorial "Rating PV Power and Energy - Cell, Module, and System Measurements," Proc. 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Seattle, WA, June 19–24, 2011, NREL report NREL/PR-5J00-65976, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/65976.pdf.

K. Emery, "How [NOT] to Measure a Solar Cell to Get the Highest Efficiency," Proc. 43nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Portland, OR, June 5–10, 2016, NREL report NREL/PR-5J00-66516, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/66516.pdf.

K. Emery, "Research Level I-V and QE Measurements," Presentation at annual meeting of the Colorado Center for Revolutionary Photoconversion (CRSP) of Colorado Energy Research Collaboratory, August 12, 2013, NREL report NREL/PR-5200-60541.

Derivation of Spectral Error

C.R. Osterwald, Translation of Device Performance Measurements to Reference Conditions, Solar Cells 18, 269–279 (1986).

C.R. Osterwald, M. Campanelli, T. Moriarty, K.A. Emery, and R. Williams, Temperature-Dependent Spectral Mismatch Corrections, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 5(6), 1692–1697 (2015).  DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2015.2459914.

Use of Spectral Correction Factor and Spectral Errors

K.A. Emery, C.R. Osterwald, T.W. Cannon, D.R. Myers, J. Burdick, T. Glatfelter, W. Czubatyj, and J. Yang, "Methods for Measuring Solar Cell Efficiency Independent of Reference Cell or Light Source," Proc. 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Las Vegas, NV, October 21–25, 1985, pp. 623–628, IEEE, New York, 1985.

J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, Spectral Response and I-V Measurements of Tandem Amorphous-Silicon Alloy Solar Cells, Solar Cells 18, 301–314 (1986).

K. Emery, J. DelCueto, and W. Zaaiman, "Spectral Corrections Based on Optical Air Mass," Proc. 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 1725–1728, IEEE, New York, 2002.

C.R. Osterwald, K.A. Emery, and M. Muller, Photovoltaic Module Calibration Value Versus Optical Air Mass: The Air Mass Function, Progress in PV 22(5), 560–573 (2014). DOI:10.1002/pip.2303

C.R. Osterwald, M. Campanelli, and G.J. Kelly, "On the Reliability of Photovoltaic Short-Circuit Current Temperature Coefficient Measurements," Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., New Orleans, LA, June 14–19, 2015.

Reference Cell Calibration and Irradiance Measurement

C.R. Osterwald, K.A. Emery, D.R. Myers, and R.E. Hart, "Primary Reference Cell Calibrations at SERI: History and Methods," Proc. 21st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Orlando, FL, May 21–25, 1990, pp. 1062–1067, IEEE, New York, 1990.

K. Emery, S. Winter, S. Pinegar, and D. Nalley, "Linearity Testing of Photovoltaic Cells," Proc. IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, pp. 2177–2180, May 7–12, 2006 Waikoloa, HI.

K. Emery, "PV Reference Cell - Construction, Calibration, and Use," presented at the PV Radiometric Workshop, Vail, CO, July 24, 25, 1995, NREL tech rep. NREL/CP-411-2008.

K. Emery and R. Smith, "Monitoring System Performance," Proc. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop, Denver, CO, February 16–17, 2011, NREL Report No. TP-5200-60170, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pv_module_reliability_workshop_2011.html

J. Meydbray, K. Emery, and S. Kurtz, Pyranometers and Reference Cells, What's the Difference?, PV Magazine, April, 2012.

J. Meydbray, E. Riley, L. Dunn, K. Emery, and S. Kurtz, Pyranometers and Reference Cells: Part 2: What Makes the Most Sense for PV Power Plants?, PV Magazine - Photovoltaic Markets and Technology, April, pp. 82–86, 2013. Also available on the NREL website, Journal Article NREL/JA-5200-56718.

V. Tatsiankou, K. Hinzer, J. Haysom, H. Schriemer, K. Emery, and R. Beal, "Design Principles and Field Performance of a Solar Spectral Irradiance Meter," Solar Energy 133, pp. 94–102, 2016, DOI:10.1016/j.solener.2016.03.054

Concentrator Photovoltaic and Multijunction Issues

J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, "Spectral Response and I-V Measurements of Tandem Amorphous-Silicon Alloy Solar Cells," Solar Cells 18, 301–314 (1986).

T. Glatfelter and J. Burdick, A Method for Determining the Conversion Efficiency of Multiple-Cell Photovoltaic Devices, Proceedings of the 19th IEEE PV Spec. Conf. New Orleans, pp. 1187–1193 (1987).

J. Kiehl, K. Emery, and A. Andreas, "Testing Concentrator Cells: Spectral Considerations of a Flash Lamp System," Proc. 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris France, June 7–11 2004, pp. 2463–2465.

T. Moriarty, J. Jablonski, and K. Emery , "Algorithm for Building a Spectrum for NREL One-Sun Multi-Source Simulator," Proc. 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Austin, TX, June 3–8, 2012, pp. 1291–1295.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, A Polymer Tandem Solar Cell With 10.6% Power Conversion Efficiency, Nature Communications 4(1466), 1–5 (2013).  DOI: 10.1038 /ncomms2411.

C.R. Osterwald, M.W. Wanlass, T. Moriarty, M.A. Steiner, and K.A. Emery, "Effects of Spectral Error in Efficiency Measurements of GaInAs-Based Concentrator Solar Cells," NREL Technical Report NREL/TP-5200-60748, March 2014.

C.R. Osterwald, M.W. Wanlass, T. Moriarty, M.A. Steiner, and K.A. Emery, "Concentrator Cell Efficiency Measurement Errors Caused by Unfiltered Xenon Flash Solar Simulators," Proc. CPV-10, AIP Proceedings volume 1616, ISBN: 978-0-7354-1253-8, DOI: /10.1063/1.4897049, pp. 149–153, Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 7–9, 2014.

C.R. Osterwald, M.W. Wanlass, T. Moriarty, M.A. Steiner, and K.A. Emery, "Empirical Procedure to Correct Concentrator Cell Efficiency Measurement Errors Caused by Unfiltered Xenon Flash Solar Simulators," Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., June  8–13, 2014, Denver, CO.

J. Morse, M. Campanelli, and K. Emery, "Sensitivity of Concentrating Photovoltaics to Solar Tracking Error," Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., June  8–13, 2014, Denver, CO, pp. 3685–3689, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6924906.

T.E. Moriarty, R.M. France, and M.A. Steiner, "Rapid, enhanced IV characterization of multi-junction PV devices under one sun at NREL," Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. New Orleans, LA, June 14–19, 2015.

Reference Conditions

S. Kurtz, D. Myers, T. Townsend, C. Whitaker, A. Maish, R. Hulstrom, and K. Emery, Outdoor Rating Conditions for Photovoltaic Modules, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 62, 379–391 (2000).

D.R. Myers, S.R. Kurtz, K. Emery, C. Whitaker, and T. Townsend, "Outdoor Meteorological Broadband and Spectral Conditions for Evaluating Photovoltaic Module," Proc. 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Anchorage, AL, Sept. 15–22, 2000, pp. 1202–1205, IEEE, New York, 2000.

K. Emery, D. Myers, and S. Kurtz, "What is the Appropriate Reference Spectrum for Characterizing Concentrator Cells?," Proc. 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 840–843, IEEE, New York, 2002.

D.R. Myers, K. Emery, and C. Gueymard, "Terrestrial Solar Spectral Modeling Tools and Applications for Photovoltaic Devices," Proc. 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 1683–1686, IEEE, New York, 2002.

D.R. Myers, K. Emery, C. Gueymard, "Proposed Reference Spectral Irradiance Standards to Improve Concentrating Photovoltaic System Design and Performance Evaluation," Proc. 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 923–926, IEEE, New York, 2002.

W.E. McMahon, Sarah Kurtz, K. Emery, and M.S. Young, "Criteria for the Design of GaInP/GaAs/Ge Triple-Junction Cells to Optimize their Performance Outdoors," Proc. 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 931–934, IEEE, New York, 2002.

D.R. Myers, K. Emery, C. Gueymard, "Revising and Validating Spectral Irradiance Standards for Photovoltaic Performance," NREL Tech. Rep. NREL/CP-560-32284 (May 1, 2002), presented at ASES/ASME Solar 2002 Conference, 15–20 June 2002, Reno, Nevada. (voted best paper at conference).

C.A. Gueymard, D. Myers and K. Emery, Proposed Reference Irradiance Spectra for Solar Energy Systems Testing, Solar Energy 73, 443–467 (2002).

D.R. Myers, K. Emery, and C. Gueymard, Revising and Validating Spectral Irradiance Standards for Photovoltaic Evaluation, J. Solar Energy Engineering 126, 567–574 (2004).

Uncertainty Analysis

K.A. Emery, C.R. Osterwald, and C.V. Wells, "Uncertainty Analysis of Photovoltaic Efficiency Measurements," Proc. 19th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., New Orleans, LA, May 4–8, pp. 153–159, IEEE, New York, 1987.

D.R. Myers, K.A. Emery, and T.L. Stoffel, "Uncertainty Estimates for Global Solar Irradiance Measurements Used to Evaluate PV Device Performance," Proc. SERI 9th Photovoltaics Advanced Research and Development meeting, May 24–26, 1989, Solar Cells. 27, pp. 455–464, 1989.

H. Field and K. Emery, "An Uncertainty Analysis of the Spectral Correction Factor," Proc. 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Louisville, KY, May 10–14, 1993, pp. 1180–1187, IEEE, New York, 1993.

K. Whitfield and C.R. Osterwald , Procedure for Determining the Uncertainty of Photovoltaic Module Outdoor Electrical Performance, Progress in PV 9, 87–102 (2001).

K. Emery, "Uncertainty Analysis of Certified Photovoltaic Measurements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory," August 2009, NREL tech rep. NREL/TP-520-45299.

A. Habte, A. Andreas, I. Reda, M. Campanelli, and T. Stoffel, "Uncertainty Analysis of Spectral Irradiance Reference Standards Used for NREL Calibrations," Technical Report No. NREL/TP-5500-58617, NREL, May 2013.

M. Campanelli and K. Emery, "Device-Dependent Light-Level Correction Errors in Photovoltaic I-V Performance Measurements," Proc. 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Tampa, FL, June 16–21, 2013, pp. 67–72, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744101.

M. Campanelli, R. Kacker, and R. Kessel, Variance Gradients and Uncertainty Budgets for Nonlinear Measurement Functions with Independent Inputs, Measurement Science and Technology 24(2), 1–16 (2013).  DOI:10.1088/0957-0233/24/2/025002.

M. Campanelli, "Two Approaches to Calibration in Metrology," SIAM Conference on Uncertainty Quantification, Savannah, GA, March 31–April 3, 2014.

M. Campanelli, K. Emery, R. Elmore, and B. Zaharatos, "Uncertainty Analysis for Maximum Power at SRC Using Hierarchical Monte Carlo Simulation," Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., June  8–13, 2014, Denver, CO.

B.C. Duck, C.J. Fell, M. Campanelli, B. Zaharatos, B. Marion, and K. Emery, "Determining Uncertainty for I-V Translation Equations," Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., June  8–13, 2014, Denver, CO, pp. 181–186, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925518.

M. Campanelli, B. Duck, and K. Emery, "Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc," Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf, New Orleans, LA, June 14–19, 2015.

Intercomparisons

K.A. Emery, D. Waddington, S. Rummel, D.R. Myers, T.L. Stoffel, and C.R. Osterwald, "SERI Results from the PEP 1987 Summit Round Robin and a Comparison of Photovoltaic Calibration Methods," SERI tech. rep. TR-213-3472, March 1989.

J. Metzdorf, T. Wittchen, K. Heidler, K. Dehne, R. Shimokawa, F. Nagamine, H. Ossenbrink, L. Fornarini, C. Goodbody, M. Davies, K. Emery, and R. Deblasio, "Objectives and Results of the PEP '87 Round-Robin Calibration of Reference Cells and Modules," Proc. 21st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Orlando, FL, May 21–25, 1990, pp. 952–959, IEEE, New York, 1990.

J. Metzdorf, T. Wittchen, K. Heidler, K. Dehne, R. Shimokawa, F. Nagamine, H. Ossenbrink, L. Fornarini, C. Goodbody, M. Davies, K. Emery, and R. Deblasio, "The Results of the PEP '87 Round-Robin Calibration of Reference Cells and Modules - Final Report," PTB technical report PTB-Opt-31, Braunschweig, Germany, November 1990, ISBN 3-89429-067-6.

K. Bücher, R. Stiening, K. Heidler, K. Emery, H. Field, D. King, and B. Hansen, "Intercomparison of Two Primary Reference Cell Calibration Procedures," Proc. 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Louisville, KY, May 10–14, 1993, pp. 1188–1193, IEEE, New York, 1993.

C.R. Osterwald, S. Anevsky, A.K. Barua, J. Dubard, K. Emery, D. King, J. Metzdorf, F. Nagamine, R. Shimokawa, N. Udayakumar, Y.X. Wang, W. Zaaiman, A. Zastrow, and J. Zhang, "Results of the PEP '93 Intercomparison of Reference Cell Calibrations and Newer Technology Performance Measurements," Proc. 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Washington D.C., May 13–17, 1996, pp. 1263-1266, IEEE, New York, 1996.

C.R. Osterwald, S. Anevsky, A.K. Barua, J. Dubard, K. Emery, D. King, J. Metzdorf, F. Nagamine, R. Shimokawa, N. Udayakumar, Y.X. Wang W. Zaaiman, A. Zastrow, and J. Zhang, "The Results of the PEP '93 Intercomparison of Reference Cell Calibrations and Newer Technology Performance Measurements: Final Report," March 1998, NREL tech. rep. NREL/TP-520-23477.

K. Emery, "The Results of the First World Photovoltaic Scale Recalibration," NREL tech. rep. NREL/TP-520-27942 (March 2000).

S. Winter, J. Metzdorf, S. Brachmann, K. Emery, F. Fabero, Y. Hishikawa, B. Hun, H. Müllejans, A. Sperling, and W. Warta, "The Results of the Second World Photovoltaic Scale Recalibration," Proc. 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Orlando FL, pp. 1011–1014, Jan. 3–7, 2005.

S. Rummel, A. Anderberg, and K. Emery, "Results from the Second International Module Intercomparison," Proc. Solar Energies Technologies Review Meeting, Nov. 7–10, 2005, NREL tech. rep. CP-520-38938.

K. Emery, "Cell and Module Level Testing Procedures and Intercomparisons," International Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop II,July 29–31, 2009, Tempe, AZ.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kräling, H Müllejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, and Y. Hishikawa, Progress in Photovoltaic Module Calibration: Results of a Worldwide Intercomparison between Four Reference Laboratories, Measurement Science and Technology 25, 105005 (2014).

A. Habte, A. Andreas, L. Ottoson, C., Gueymard, G. Fedor, S. Fowler, J. Peterson, T. Kobashi, A. Akiyama, and S. Takagi, "Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement," Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-61476, NREL, May 2014.

A. Habte, A. Andreas, L. Ottoson, C. Gueymard, G. Fedor, S. Fowler, J. Peterson, E. Naranen, T. Kobashi, A. Akiyama, and S. Takagi, "Spectroradiometer Intercomparison and Impact on Characterizing Photovoltaic Device Performance," Solar 2014, San Francisco, CA, July 6–10, 2014.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kräling, A. Schmid, F. Neuberger, H. Müllejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, M. Campanelli, and Y. Hishikawa, "Current Status and Outlook on the Accuracy of PV Module Calibration," Proc. EU PVSEC 2015, Hamburg, Germany, September 14–18, 2015.

Current-Voltage and Quantum Efficiency Overview

K.A. Emery and C.R. Osterwald, "Solar Cell Efficiency Measurements," Solar Cells 17, pp. 253–274, 1986.

K. Emery, D. Myers, and S. Rummel, "Solar Simulation - Problems and Solutions," Proc. 20th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Las Vegas, NV, September 26–30, 1988, pp. 1087–1091, IEEE, New York, 1989.

K. Emery and H. Field, "Artificial Enhancements and Reductions in the PV Efficiency," Proc. 24th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Waikoloa, HW, December 5–9, 1994, pp. 1833–1838, IEEE, New York, 1994.

K. Emery, D. Dunlavy, H. Field, and T. Moriarty, "Photovoltaic Spectral Responsivity Measurements," Proc. 2nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna Austria July 6–10, 1998, Joint Research Center report EUR 18656, pp. 2298–2301.

C. R. Osterwald and T. J. McMahon, "History of Accelerated and Qualification Testing of Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules: A Literature Review," Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 17, pp. 11–33, 2009.

K. Emery, A. Anderberg, M. Campanelli, P. Ciszek, C. Mack, T. Moriarty, C. Osterwald, L. Ottoson, S. Rummel, and R. Williams, "Rating Photovoltaics," Proc. 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Tampa, FL, June 16–21, 2013, pp. 1–6, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744086. Also available on the NREL website, Technical Report No. NREL/CP-5200-58754.

Translation Equations, Equivalent-Circuit Modeling, and Spectral Modeling

C.R. Osterwald, K.A. Emery, D.R. Myers, and C.J. Riordan, "Extending the Spectral Range of Silicon-Based Direct-Beam Solar Spectral Radiometric Measurements," Proc. 20th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Las Vegas, NV, September 26–30, 1988, pp. 1246–1250, IEEE, New York, 1989.

S. Nann and K. Emery, Spectral Effects on PV-Device Ratings, Solar Energy Materials 27, 189–216 (1992).

S. Nann and K. Emery, "A Numerical Analysis of PV-Rating Methods," Proc. 22nd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Las Vegas, NV, Oct. 8–11, 1991, pp. 789–795, IEEE, New York, 1991.

B. Marion, B. Kroposki, K. Emery, J. Del Cueto, D. Myers, and C. Osterwald, "Validation of a Photovoltaic Module Energy Ratings Procedure at NREL," NREL tech. Rep. NREL/TP-520-26909 (August 1999).

B. Kroposki, K. Emery, D. Myers, and L. Mrig, "A Comparison of Photovoltaic Module Performance Evaluation Methodologies for Energy Ratings," Proc. 24th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Waikoloa, HW, December 5–9, 1994, pp. 858–862, IEEE, New York, 1994.

C. Osterwald and K. Emery, Spectroradiometric Sun Photometry," Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 17, 1171–1188 (2000).

A. Kimber, T. Dierauf, L. Mitchell, C. Whitaker, T. Townsend, J. NewMiller, D. King, J. Granata, K. Emery, C. Osterwald, D. Myers, B. Marion, A. Pligavko, A. Panchula, T. Levitsky, J. Forbess, and F. Talmud, "Improved Test Method to Verify the Power Rating of a Photovoltaic (PV) Project," Proc. 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Philadelphia, PA, June 8–12, 2009, pp. 316–321.

B. Zaharatos, M. Campanelli, and L. Tenorio, "On the Estimability of the PV Single-Diode Model Parameters," CoDA2014 - DOE Conference on Data Analysis, Santa Fe, NM, March 5–7, 2014.

B. Zaharatos, M. Campanelli, C. Hansen, K. Emery, and L. Tenorio, "Likelihood Methods for Single Diode Model Parameter Estimation from I-V Curve Data with Noise," Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., June  8–13, 2014, Denver, CO, pp. 2850–2855, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925526.

P.G. Constantine, B. Zaharatos, and M. Campanelli, "Discovering an Active Subspace in a Single Diode Solar Cell Model," CoDA2014 - DOE Conference on Data Analysis, Santa Fe, NM, March 5-7, 2014.

W. Marion, A. Anderberg, C. Deline, S. Glick, M. Muller, G. Perrin, J. Rodriguez, S. Rummel, K. Terwilliger, and T.J. Silverman, "User's Manual for Data for Validating Models for PV Module Performance," Technical Report NREL/TP-5200-61610, NREL, April 2014.

B.C. Duck, C.J. Fell, B. Marion, and K. Emery, "Comparing Standard Translation Methods for Predicting Photovoltaic Energy Production," Proc. 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Tampa, FL, June 16–21, 2013, pp. 763–768, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744261.

B.C. Duck, C.J. Fell, M. Campanelli, B. Zaharatos, B. Marion, and K. Emery, "Determining Uncertainty for I-V Translation Equations," Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., June  8–13, 2014, Denver, CO, pp. 181–186, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925518.

B. Marion, A. Anderberg, C. Deline, J. del Cueto, M. Muller, G. Perrin, J. Rodriguez, S. Rummel, T. Silverman, F. Vignola, R. Kessler, J. Peterson, S. Barkaszi, M. Jacobs, N. Riedel, L. Pratt, and B. King, "New Data Set for Validating PV Module Performance Models," pp. 1362–1366, Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., Denver, CO, June 8–13, 2014, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925171.

M. Campanelli, B. Duck, and K. Emery, "Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc," Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., New Orleans, LA, June 14–19, 2015.

Metastability and Stabilization

T.J. Silverman, M.G. Deceglie, B. Marion, and S.R. Kurtz, "Performance Stabilization of CdTe PV Modules Using Bias and Light," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 5(1), 2015, DOI:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2370252.

J. A. Del Cueto, C. A. Deline, S. R. Rummel, and A. Anderberg, "Progress Toward a Stabilization and Preconditioning Protocol for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules," in Proc. 35th IEEE. Photovoltaic Spec. Conf., 2010, pp. 2423–2428.

M.G. Deceglie, T.J. Silverman, K. Emery, D. Dirnberger, A. Schmid, S. Barkaszi, N. Riedel, L. Pratt, S. Doshi, G. Tamizhmani, B. Marion, and S.R. Kurtz, "Validated Method for Repeatable Power Measurement of CIGS Modules Exhibiting Light-Induced Metastabilities," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 5(2), 2015, pp. 607–612, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2376056.

Standards

www.astm.org

PV standards can be found in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 12.02. American

Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

www.iec.ch

IEC working group 2 PV cell and module IV and QE, IEC 60904-1 thru -10, IEC 60891

ISO 15387:2005, Space systems – Single-junction space solar cells – Measurement and calibration  procedures, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.

http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, and OIML). Evaluation of measurement data—"Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement," JCGM 100:2008, GUM 1995 with minor corrections. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), S`evres, France, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html.

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, and OIML). Evaluation of measurement data—Supplement 1 to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement"—Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method, JCGM 101:2008. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), S`evres, France, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html.

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, and OIML). International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM), JCGM 200:2008. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), S`evres, France, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/vim.html.

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, and OIML). Evaluation of measurement data—Supplement 2 to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement"—Extension to any number of output quantities, JCGM 102:2011. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), S`evres, France, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html.

Efficiency Tables

The most current version of NREL's table of record cell efficiencies over time can be found at

http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/ or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell_efficiency

The recognized independent efficiency measurement labs publish tables of the current record cell and module efficiencies that have been independently measured by recognized labs.  The first version is:

M.A. Green and K.A. Emery, Solar Cell Efficiency Tables, Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications 1, 25–30 (1993).

and the most recent version is:

M.A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. Dunlop, Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (version 48), Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications 24(7), 905–913 (2016).  DOI: 10.1002/pip.2788