# Important Publications in the Area of Photovoltaic Performance

## Books

K. Emery, "Efficiency Measurements of Photovoltaic Devices," *Advances in Solar Energy* **7**, 1992, chapter 3, Karl Böer editor.

R. DeBlasio, J. Stone, T. Surek, K. Emery, D. Myers, B. Kroposki, L. Mrig, J. Burdick,
A. Czanderna, T. Strand, and C. Osterwald, "Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability,"
*Advances in Solar Energy* **10**, 1995, chapter 5, Karl Böer editor, American Solar Energy Society publisher, Boulder,
Colorado.

K.A. Emery, "Measurement and Characterization of Solar cells and Modules," *Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering*, 2^{nd}, Chap. 18, pp. 797-840, A. Luque and S. Hegedus editors, John Wiley & Sons, W. Sussex,
U.K., ISBN -0-470-72169-8, 2011.

C.R. Osterwald, Standards, Calibration, and Testing of PV Modules and Solar Cells, chapter III-2 in *Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications*, 2^{nd} edition, editors Augustin McEvoy, Tom Markvart, Luis Castaner, Academic press, pp.
1045–1069, 2011, DOI: 978-0-12-385934-1.

Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Standards, Experimental Methods, and Protocols, Springer Briefs in Energy, Editors Z. Chen, H. Din, E. Miller, contributors K. Emery et al., DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-8298-7, ISBN 978-14614-8297-0, 2013.

C.R. Osterwald and G. Siefer, "CPV Multijunction Solar Cell Characterization," Chapter
10 in *Handbook on Concentrator Photovoltaic Technology*, 1^{st} ed., C. Algora, I. Rey-Stolle, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 589-614, May 2016, ISBN: 978-1-118-47296-5

## Tutorials

K. Emery, Tutorial "Rating PV Power and Energy - Cell, Module, and System Measurements,"
*Proc*. *37 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Seattle, WA, June 19–24, 2011, NREL report NREL/PR-5J00-65976, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/65976.pdf.

K. Emery, "How [NOT] to Measure a Solar Cell to Get the Highest Efficiency,"* Proc*. *43 ^{nd }IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Portland, OR, June 5–10, 2016, NREL report NREL/PR-5J00-66516, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/66516.pdf.

K. Emery, "Research Level I-V and QE Measurements," Presentation at annual meeting of the Colorado Center for Revolutionary Photoconversion (CRSP) of Colorado Energy Research Collaboratory, August 12, 2013, NREL report NREL/PR-5200-60541.

## Derivation of Spectral Error

C.R. Osterwald, Translation of Device Performance Measurements to Reference Conditions, *Solar Cells* **18**, 269–279 (1986).

C.R. Osterwald, M. Campanelli, T. Moriarty, K.A. Emery, and R. Williams, Temperature-Dependent
Spectral Mismatch Corrections, *IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics* **5**(6), 1692–1697 (2015). DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2015.2459914.

## Use of Spectral Correction Factor and Spectral Errors

K.A. Emery, C.R. Osterwald, T.W. Cannon, D.R. Myers, J. Burdick, T. Glatfelter, W.
Czubatyj, and J. Yang, "Methods for Measuring Solar Cell Efficiency Independent of
Reference Cell or Light Source," *Proc. 18 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Las Vegas, NV, October 21–25, 1985, pp. 623–628, IEEE, New York, 1985.

J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, Spectral Response and I-V Measurements of Tandem Amorphous-Silicon
Alloy Solar Cells, *Solar Cells* **18**, 301–314 (1986).

K. Emery, J. DelCueto, and W. Zaaiman, "Spectral Corrections Based on Optical Air
Mass," *Proc. 29 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 1725–1728, IEEE, New York, 2002.

C.R. Osterwald, K.A. Emery, and M. Muller, Photovoltaic Module Calibration Value Versus Optical Air Mass: The Air Mass Function, *Progress in PV* **22**(5), 560–573 (2014). DOI:10.1002/pip.2303

C.R. Osterwald, M. Campanelli, and G.J. Kelly, "On the Reliability of Photovoltaic Short-Circuit Current Temperature Coefficient Measurements," *Proc*. *42 ^{nd} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.,* New Orleans, LA, June 14–19, 2015.

## Reference Cell Calibration and Irradiance Measurement

C.R. Osterwald, K.A. Emery, D.R. Myers, and R.E. Hart, "Primary Reference Cell Calibrations
at SERI: History and Methods," *Proc. 21 ^{st} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf*., Orlando, FL, May 21–25, 1990, pp. 1062–1067, IEEE, New York, 1990.

K. Emery, S. Winter, S. Pinegar, and D. Nalley, "Linearity Testing of Photovoltaic
Cells," *Proc. IEEE 4 ^{th} World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, pp. 2177–2180, May 7–12, 2006
Waikoloa, HI.*

K. Emery, "PV Reference Cell - Construction, Calibration, and Use," presented at the PV Radiometric Workshop, Vail, CO, July 24, 25, 1995, NREL tech rep. NREL/CP-411-2008.

K. Emery and R. Smith, "Monitoring System Performance," *Proc. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop*, Denver, CO, February 16–17, 2011, NREL Report No. TP-5200-60170, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pv_module_reliability_workshop_2011.html

J. Meydbray, K. Emery, and S. Kurtz, Pyranometers and Reference Cells, What's the
Difference?, *PV Magazine*, April, 2012.

J. Meydbray, E. Riley, L. Dunn, K. Emery, and S. Kurtz, Pyranometers and Reference Cells: Part 2: What Makes the Most Sense for PV Power Plants?, *PV Magazine - Photovoltaic Markets and Technology*, April, pp. 82–86, 2013. Also available on the NREL website, Journal Article NREL/JA-5200-56718.

V. Tatsiankou, K. Hinzer, J. Haysom, H. Schriemer, K. Emery, and R. Beal, "Design
Principles and Field Performance of a Solar Spectral Irradiance Meter," *Solar Energy ***133**, pp. 94–102, 2016, DOI:10.1016/j.solener.2016.03.054

## Concentrator Photovoltaic and Multijunction Issues

J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, "Spectral Response and I-V Measurements of Tandem Amorphous-Silicon
Alloy Solar Cells," *Solar Cells* **18**, 301–314 (1986).

T. Glatfelter and J. Burdick, A Method for Determining the Conversion Efficiency of
Multiple-Cell Photovoltaic Devices, *Proceedings of the 19 ^{th} IEEE PV Spec. Conf.* New Orleans, pp. 1187–1193 (1987).

J. Kiehl, K. Emery, and A. Andreas, "Testing Concentrator Cells: Spectral Considerations
of a Flash Lamp System," *Proc. 19 ^{th} European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition*, Paris France, June 7–11 2004, pp. 2463–2465.

T. Moriarty, J. Jablonski, and K. Emery , "Algorithm for Building a Spectrum for NREL
One-Sun Multi-Source Simulator,"* Proc. 38 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Austin, TX, June 3–8, 2012, pp. 1291–1295.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen,
J. Gao, G. Li, and Y. Yang, A Polymer Tandem Solar Cell With 10.6% Power Conversion Efficiency, *Nature Communications* **4**(1466), 1–5 (2013). DOI: 10.1038 /ncomms2411.

C.R. Osterwald, M.W. Wanlass, T. Moriarty, M.A. Steiner, and K.A. Emery, "Effects of Spectral Error in Efficiency Measurements of GaInAs-Based Concentrator Solar Cells," NREL Technical Report NREL/TP-5200-60748, March 2014.

C.R. Osterwald, M.W. Wanlass, T. Moriarty, M.A. Steiner, and K.A. Emery, "Concentrator Cell Efficiency Measurement Errors Caused by Unfiltered Xenon Flash Solar
Simulators," *Proc. CPV-10*, AIP Proceedings volume 1616, ISBN: 978-0-7354-1253-8, DOI: /10.1063/1.4897049, pp.
149–153, Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 7–9, 2014.

C.R. Osterwald, M.W. Wanlass, T. Moriarty, M.A. Steiner, and K.A. Emery, "Empirical Procedure to Correct Concentrator Cell Efficiency Measurement Errors Caused
by Unfiltered Xenon Flash Solar Simulators," *Proc*. *40 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, June 8–13, 2014, Denver, CO.

J. Morse, M. Campanelli, and K. Emery, "Sensitivity of Concentrating Photovoltaics to Solar Tracking Error," *Proc*. *40 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, June 8–13, 2014, Denver, CO, pp. 3685–3689, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6924906.

T.E. Moriarty, R.M. France, and M.A. Steiner, "Rapid, enhanced IV characterization of multi-junction PV devices under one sun at
NREL," *Proc*. *42 ^{nd} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. *New Orleans, LA, June 14–19, 2015.

## Reference Conditions

S. Kurtz, D. Myers, T. Townsend, C. Whitaker, A. Maish, R. Hulstrom, and K. Emery,
Outdoor Rating Conditions for Photovoltaic Modules, *Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells* **62**, 379–391 (2000).

D.R. Myers, S.R. Kurtz, K. Emery, C. Whitaker, and T. Townsend, "Outdoor Meteorological
Broadband and Spectral Conditions for Evaluating Photovoltaic Module," *Proc. 28 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, Anchorage, AL, Sept. 15–22, 2000, pp. 1202–1205, IEEE, New York, 2000.

K. Emery, D. Myers, and S. Kurtz, "What is the Appropriate Reference Spectrum for
Characterizing Concentrator Cells?," *Proc. 29 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 840–843, IEEE, New York, 2002.

D.R. Myers, K. Emery, and C. Gueymard, "Terrestrial Solar Spectral Modeling Tools
and Applications for Photovoltaic Devices," *Proc. 29 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 1683–1686, IEEE, New York, 2002.

D.R. Myers, K. Emery, C. Gueymard, "Proposed Reference Spectral Irradiance Standards
to Improve Concentrating Photovoltaic System Design and Performance Evaluation,"* Proc. 29 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 923–926, IEEE, New York, 2002.

W.E. McMahon, Sarah Kurtz, K. Emery, and M.S. Young, "Criteria for the Design of GaInP/GaAs/Ge
Triple-Junction Cells to Optimize their Performance Outdoors," *Proc. 29 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, New Orleans, LA, May 20–24, 2002, pp. 931–934, IEEE, New York, 2002.

D.R. Myers, K. Emery, C. Gueymard, "Revising and Validating Spectral Irradiance Standards
for Photovoltaic Performance," NREL Tech. Rep. NREL/CP-560-32284 (May 1, 2002), *presented at ASES/ASME Solar 2002 Conference*, 15–20 June 2002, Reno, Nevada. (voted best paper at conference).

C.A. Gueymard, D. Myers and K. Emery, Proposed Reference Irradiance Spectra for Solar
Energy Systems Testing, *Solar Energy* **73**, 443–467 (2002).

D.R. Myers, K. Emery, and C. Gueymard, Revising and Validating Spectral Irradiance
Standards for Photovoltaic Evaluation, *J. Solar Energy Engineering* **126**, 567–574 (2004).

## Uncertainty Analysis

K.A. Emery, C.R. Osterwald, and C.V. Wells, "Uncertainty Analysis of Photovoltaic
Efficiency Measurements," *Proc. 19 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, New Orleans, LA, May 4–8, pp. 153–159, IEEE, New York, 1987.

D.R. Myers, K.A. Emery, and T.L. Stoffel, "Uncertainty Estimates for Global Solar
Irradiance Measurements Used to Evaluate PV Device Performance," *Proc. SERI 9 ^{th} Photovoltaics Advanced Research and Development meeting*, May 24–26, 1989,

*Solar Cells*.

**27**, pp. 455–464, 1989.

H. Field and K. Emery, "An Uncertainty Analysis of the Spectral Correction Factor,"
*Proc. 23 ^{rd} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, Louisville, KY, May 10–14, 1993, pp. 1180–1187, IEEE, New York, 1993.

K. Whitfield and C.R. Osterwald , Procedure for Determining the Uncertainty of Photovoltaic
Module Outdoor Electrical Performance, *Progress in PV* **9**, 87–102 (2001).

K. Emery, "Uncertainty Analysis of Certified Photovoltaic Measurements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory," August 2009, NREL tech rep. NREL/TP-520-45299.

A. Habte, A. Andreas, I. Reda, M. Campanelli, and T. Stoffel, "Uncertainty Analysis of Spectral Irradiance Reference Standards Used for NREL Calibrations," Technical Report No. NREL/TP-5500-58617, NREL, May 2013.

M. Campanelli and K. Emery, "Device-Dependent Light-Level Correction Errors in Photovoltaic I-V Performance Measurements," *Proc. 39 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Tampa, FL, June 16–21, 2013, pp. 67–72, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744101.

M. Campanelli, R. Kacker, and R. Kessel, Variance Gradients and Uncertainty Budgets for Nonlinear Measurement Functions with
Independent Inputs, *Measurement Science and Technology* **24**(2), 1–16 (2013). DOI:10.1088/0957-0233/24/2/025002.

M. Campanelli, "Two Approaches to Calibration in Metrology," SIAM Conference on Uncertainty Quantification, Savannah, GA, March 31–April 3, 2014.

M. Campanelli, K. Emery, R. Elmore, and B. Zaharatos, "Uncertainty Analysis for Maximum Power at SRC Using Hierarchical Monte Carlo Simulation," *Proc*. *40 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, June 8–13, 2014, Denver, CO.

B.C. Duck, C.J. Fell, M. Campanelli, B. Zaharatos, B. Marion, and K. Emery, "Determining Uncertainty for I-V Translation Equations," *Proc*. *40 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, June 8–13, 2014, Denver, CO, pp. 181–186, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925518.

M. Campanelli, B. Duck, and K. Emery, "Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty
in Isc," *Proc*. *42 ^{nd} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf*, New Orleans, LA, June 14–19, 2015.

## Intercomparisons

K.A. Emery, D. Waddington, S. Rummel, D.R. Myers, T.L. Stoffel, and C.R. Osterwald, "SERI Results from the PEP 1987 Summit Round Robin and a Comparison of Photovoltaic Calibration Methods," SERI tech. rep. TR-213-3472, March 1989.

J. Metzdorf, T. Wittchen, K. Heidler, K. Dehne, R. Shimokawa, F. Nagamine, H. Ossenbrink,
L. Fornarini, C. Goodbody, M. Davies, K. Emery, and R. Deblasio, "Objectives and Results
of the PEP '87 Round-Robin Calibration of Reference Cells and Modules," *Proc. 21 ^{st} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, Orlando, FL, May 21–25, 1990, pp. 952–959, IEEE, New York, 1990.

J. Metzdorf, T. Wittchen, K. Heidler, K. Dehne, R. Shimokawa, F. Nagamine, H. Ossenbrink, L. Fornarini, C. Goodbody, M. Davies, K. Emery, and R. Deblasio, "The Results of the PEP '87 Round-Robin Calibration of Reference Cells and Modules - Final Report," PTB technical report PTB-Opt-31, Braunschweig, Germany, November 1990, ISBN 3-89429-067-6.

K. Bücher, R. Stiening, K. Heidler, K. Emery, H. Field, D. King, and B. Hansen, "Intercomparison
of Two Primary Reference Cell Calibration Procedures," *Proc. 23 ^{rd} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf*., Louisville, KY, May 10–14, 1993, pp. 1188–1193, IEEE, New York, 1993.

C.R. Osterwald, S. Anevsky, A.K. Barua, J. Dubard, K. Emery, D. King, J. Metzdorf,
F. Nagamine, R. Shimokawa, N. Udayakumar, Y.X. Wang, W. Zaaiman, A. Zastrow, and J.
Zhang, "Results of the PEP '93 Intercomparison of Reference Cell Calibrations and
Newer Technology Performance Measurements," *Proc. 25 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, Washington D.C., May 13–17, 1996, pp. 1263-1266, IEEE, New York, 1996.

C.R. Osterwald, S. Anevsky, A.K. Barua, J. Dubard, K. Emery, D. King, J. Metzdorf, F. Nagamine, R. Shimokawa, N. Udayakumar, Y.X. Wang W. Zaaiman, A. Zastrow, and J. Zhang, "The Results of the PEP '93 Intercomparison of Reference Cell Calibrations and Newer Technology Performance Measurements: Final Report," March 1998, NREL tech. rep. NREL/TP-520-23477.

K. Emery, "The Results of the First World Photovoltaic Scale Recalibration," NREL tech. rep. NREL/TP-520-27942 (March 2000).

S. Winter, J. Metzdorf, S. Brachmann, K. Emery, F. Fabero, Y. Hishikawa, B. Hun, H.
Müllejans, A. Sperling, and W. Warta, "The Results of the Second World Photovoltaic
Scale Recalibration," *Proc. 31 ^{st} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Orlando FL, pp. 1011–1014, Jan. 3–7, 2005.

S. Rummel, A. Anderberg, and K. Emery, "Results from the Second International Module
Intercomparison," *Proc. Solar Energies Technologies Review Meeting*, Nov. 7–10, 2005, NREL tech. rep. CP-520-38938.

K. Emery, "Cell and Module Level Testing Procedures and Intercomparisons," *International Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop II*,July 29–31, 2009, Tempe, AZ.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kräling, H Müllejans, E. Salis, K. Emery, and Y. Hishikawa, Progress
in Photovoltaic Module Calibration: Results of a Worldwide Intercomparison between
Four Reference Laboratories, *Measurement Science and Technology* **25, **105005 (2014).

A. Habte, A. Andreas, L. Ottoson, C., Gueymard, G. Fedor, S. Fowler, J. Peterson, T. Kobashi, A. Akiyama, and S. Takagi, "Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement," Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-61476, NREL, May 2014.

A. Habte, A. Andreas, L. Ottoson, C. Gueymard, G. Fedor, S. Fowler, J. Peterson, E. Naranen, T. Kobashi, A. Akiyama, and S. Takagi, "Spectroradiometer Intercomparison and Impact on Characterizing Photovoltaic Device Performance," Solar 2014, San Francisco, CA, July 6–10, 2014.

D. Dirnberger, U. Kräling, A. Schmid, F. Neuberger, H. Müllejans, E. Salis, K. Emery,
M. Campanelli, and Y. Hishikawa, "Current Status and Outlook on the Accuracy of PV
Module Calibration," *Proc. EU PVSEC 2015*, Hamburg, Germany, September 14–18, 2015.

## Current-Voltage and Quantum Efficiency Overview

K.A. Emery and C.R. Osterwald, "Solar Cell Efficiency Measurements," *Solar Cells* **17**, pp. 253–274, 1986.

K. Emery, D. Myers, and S. Rummel, "Solar Simulation - Problems and Solutions," *Proc. 20 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf*., Las Vegas, NV, September 26–30, 1988, pp. 1087–1091, IEEE, New York, 1989.

K. Emery and H. Field, "Artificial Enhancements and Reductions in the PV Efficiency,"
*Proc. 24 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, Waikoloa, HW, December 5–9, 1994, pp. 1833–1838, IEEE, New York, 1994.

K. Emery, D. Dunlavy, H. Field, and T. Moriarty, "Photovoltaic Spectral Responsivity
Measurements," *Proc. 2 ^{nd} World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion*, Vienna Austria July 6–10, 1998, Joint Research Center report EUR 18656, pp. 2298–2301.

C. R. Osterwald and T. J. McMahon, "History of Accelerated and Qualification Testing
of Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules: A Literature Review," *Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl.* **17**, pp. 11–33, 2009.

K. Emery, A. Anderberg, M. Campanelli, P. Ciszek, C. Mack, T. Moriarty, C. Osterwald,
L. Ottoson, S. Rummel, and R. Williams, "Rating Photovoltaics," *Proc. 39 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Tampa, FL, June 16–21, 2013, pp. 1–6, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744086. Also available
on the NREL website, Technical Report No. NREL/CP-5200-58754.

## Translation Equations, Equivalent-Circuit Modeling, and Spectral Modeling

C.R. Osterwald, K.A. Emery, D.R. Myers, and C.J. Riordan, "Extending the Spectral
Range of Silicon-Based Direct-Beam Solar Spectral Radiometric Measurements," *Proc. 20 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf*., Las Vegas, NV, September 26–30, 1988, pp. 1246–1250, IEEE, New York, 1989.

S. Nann and K. Emery, Spectral Effects on PV-Device Ratings, *Solar Energy Materials* **27**, 189–216 (1992).

S. Nann and K. Emery, "A Numerical Analysis of PV-Rating Methods," *Proc. 22 ^{nd} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf*., Las Vegas, NV, Oct. 8–11, 1991, pp. 789–795, IEEE, New York, 1991.

B. Marion, B. Kroposki, K. Emery, J. Del Cueto, D. Myers, and C. Osterwald, "Validation of a Photovoltaic Module Energy Ratings Procedure at NREL," NREL tech. Rep. NREL/TP-520-26909 (August 1999).

B. Kroposki, K. Emery, D. Myers, and L. Mrig, "A Comparison of Photovoltaic Module
Performance Evaluation Methodologies for Energy Ratings," *Proc. 24 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf.*, Waikoloa, HW, December 5–9, 1994, pp. 858–862, IEEE, New York, 1994.

C. Osterwald and K. Emery, Spectroradiometric Sun Photometry," *Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology* **17**, 1171–1188 (2000).

A. Kimber, T. Dierauf, L. Mitchell, C. Whitaker, T. Townsend, J. NewMiller, D. King,
J. Granata, K. Emery, C. Osterwald, D. Myers, B. Marion, A. Pligavko, A. Panchula,
T. Levitsky, J. Forbess, and F. Talmud, "Improved Test Method to Verify the Power
Rating of a Photovoltaic (PV) Project," *Proc. 34 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Philadelphia, PA, June 8–12, 2009, pp. 316–321.

B. Zaharatos, M. Campanelli, and L. Tenorio, "*On the Estimability of the PV Single-Diode Model Parameters*," CoDA2014 - DOE Conference on Data Analysis, Santa Fe, NM, March 5–7, 2014.

B. Zaharatos, M. Campanelli, C. Hansen, K. Emery, and L. Tenorio, "Likelihood Methods for Single Diode Model Parameter Estimation from I-V Curve Data
with Noise," *Proc*. *40 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, June 8–13, 2014, Denver, CO, pp. 2850–2855, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925526.

P.G. Constantine, B. Zaharatos, and M. Campanelli, "Discovering an Active Subspace in a Single Diode Solar Cell Model," CoDA2014 - DOE Conference on Data Analysis, Santa Fe, NM, March 5-7, 2014.

W. Marion, A. Anderberg, C. Deline, S. Glick, M. Muller, G. Perrin, J. Rodriguez, S. Rummel, K. Terwilliger, and T.J. Silverman, "User's Manual for Data for Validating Models for PV Module Performance," Technical Report NREL/TP-5200-61610, NREL, April 2014.

B.C. Duck, C.J. Fell, B. Marion, and K. Emery, "Comparing Standard Translation Methods for Predicting Photovoltaic Energy Production," *Proc. 39 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Tampa, FL, June 16–21, 2013, pp. 763–768, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744261.

B.C. Duck, C.J. Fell, M. Campanelli, B. Zaharatos, B. Marion, and K. Emery, "Determining
Uncertainty for I-V Translation Equations," *Proc*. *40 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, June 8–13, 2014, Denver, CO, pp. 181–186, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925518.

B. Marion, A. Anderberg, C. Deline, J. del Cueto, M. Muller, G. Perrin, J. Rodriguez,
S. Rummel, T. Silverman, F. Vignola, R. Kessler, J. Peterson, S. Barkaszi, M. Jacobs,
N. Riedel, L. Pratt, and B. King, "New Data Set for Validating PV Module Performance Models," pp. 1362–1366, *Proc*. *40 ^{th} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, Denver, CO, June 8–13, 2014, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925171.

M. Campanelli, B. Duck, and K. Emery, "Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc," *Proc*. *42 ^{nd} IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, New Orleans, LA, June 14–19, 2015.

## Metastability and Stabilization

T.J. Silverman, M.G. Deceglie, B. Marion, and S.R. Kurtz, "Performance Stabilization
of CdTe PV Modules Using Bias and Light," *IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics* **5**(1), 2015, DOI:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2370252**.**

J. A. Del Cueto, C. A. Deline, S. R. Rummel, and A. Anderberg, "Progress Toward a
Stabilization and Preconditioning Protocol for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic
Modules," in *Proc. 35 ^{th} IEEE. Photovoltaic Spec. Conf.*, 2010, pp. 2423–2428.

M.G. Deceglie, T.J. Silverman, K. Emery, D. Dirnberger, A. Schmid, S. Barkaszi, N.
Riedel, L. Pratt, S. Doshi, G. Tamizhmani, B. Marion, and S.R. Kurtz, "Validated Method for Repeatable Power Measurement of CIGS Modules Exhibiting Light-Induced
Metastabilities," *IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics* **5**(2), 2015, pp. 607–612, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2376056.

## Standards

### www.astm.org

PV standards can be found in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 12.02. American

Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

### www.iec.ch

IEC working group 2 PV cell and module IV and QE, IEC 60904-1 thru -10, IEC 60891

ISO 15387:2005, Space systems – Single-junction space solar cells – Measurement and calibration procedures, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.

### http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, and OIML). Evaluation of measurement data—"Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement," JCGM 100:2008, GUM 1995 with minor corrections. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), S`evres, France, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html.

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, and OIML). Evaluation of measurement data—Supplement 1 to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement"—Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method, JCGM 101:2008. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), S`evres, France, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html.

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, and OIML). International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM), JCGM 200:2008. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), S`evres, France, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/vim.html.

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, and OIML). Evaluation of measurement data—Supplement 2 to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement"—Extension to any number of output quantities, JCGM 102:2011. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), S`evres, France, 2008, http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html.

## Efficiency Tables

The most current version of NREL's table of record cell efficiencies over time can be found at

http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/ or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell_efficiency

The recognized independent efficiency measurement labs publish tables of the current record cell and module efficiencies that have been independently measured by recognized labs. The first version is:

M.A. Green and K.A. Emery, Solar Cell Efficiency Tables, *Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications* **1**, 25–30 (1993).

and the most recent version is:

M.A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. Dunlop, Solar Cell Efficiency
Tables (version 48), *Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications* **24**(7), 905–913 (2016). DOI: 10.1002/pip.2788