Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module (Text Version)

This is the text version of the Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module video.

Presentation title slide:
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Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module
Chao Zhang, Shriram Santhanagopalan, Mark J. Stock, Nicholas Brunhart-Lupo, and Kenny Gruchalla
November 2016

Animation of box-shaped equipment consisting of layers of material with fins at top separating layers and frame providing outer structure for equipment. Blue light emanates from small rectangular area on side of equipment.

Onscreen text:
Battery assembly
Battery dimensions: 151 x 180 x 260 millimeters (mm)
Total number of elements: 745,304

Animation shows removal of outer materials, including front and back plates, mid-frame, and packaging to expose inner layers. Inner layer removal starts with cathode current collector layers, separator layers, anode current collector layers, and cooling channel layers. These layers are composed of thin, parallel, rectangular shapes of different colors.

Onscreen text:
Isolating electrically active components
Removing all components, except:
• Anode/cathode active materials
• Electrical tabs.

Animation shows remaining components in box-shaped equipment, with grey layers of material and capped fins at top. A half-circle shape to the right of the equipment moves closer and starts to push into the equipment.

Onscreen text:
Battery assembly impact
0 to 0.003 seconds (s)
Impactor speed 6.3 m/s

Animation shows remaining components in box-shaped equipment, but this time with colorful layers of material. A half-circle shape to the right of the equipment moves closer and starts to push into the equipment.

Onscreen text:
Internal battery impact (3 milliseconds)
Time resolution (dt):
Mechanical dt = 10-8 s
Electrical dt = 10-5 s

Similar animation shows megapascal stress range via color variation, with highest levels at areas of impact and small, box-shaped areas at other side of equipment.

Onscreen text:
von Mises stress (MPa)
0 to 200 megapascals
Mid-frame, packing, impactor omitted

Similar animation shows electric field range via color variation, with highest levels at areas of impact and areas at other side of equipment, with short circuits emanating from impacted areas.

Onscreen text:
Electric field
0 to 106 volt per meter (V/m)
On surface of tabs, active anode and cathode

Similar animation shows current density via color variation, with highest levels at areas of impact and outer edges as well as areas at other side of equipment.

Onscreen text:
Current density
0 to 300 amperes per square meter (A/m2)
On surface of active anode and cathode

Similar animation shows current density via color variation but with highest levels at top area and arrows on left side pointing inward and arrows on right side pointing outward.

Onscreen text:
Current density
0 to 25,000 A/m2
On tabs, active anode and cathode

Similar animation shows in-plane current density but with short circuits emanating from various areas. The layers separate to reveal that there are no short circuits in many of the inner layers. 

Onscreen text:
In-plane current density distribution
0 to 300 A/m2
On surface of anode and cathode

Presentation title slide with additional text:

Research supported by the Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) project by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office (DOE WBS 1.1.2.406) with computational resources at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Learn more about NREL's energy storage thermal safety research.