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Publications

NREL develops publications—including technical reports, journal articles, conference papers, and posters—focusing on the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) and Wind Deployment System (WinDS) models.

2017

Beiter, Philipp, Wesley J. Cole, and Daniel C. Steinberg. 2017. "Modeling the Value of Integrated U.S. and Canadian Power Sector Expansion." The Electricity Journal. 30(2): 47-59.

Cole, Wesley, Bethany Frew, Pieter Gagnon, James Richards, Yinong Sun, Jarett Zuboy, Michael Woodhouse, and Robert Margolis. 2017. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-68105. View the associated slide deck.

Cole, Wesley, Bethany Frew, Trieu Mai, Yinong Sun, John Bistline, Geoffrey Blanford, David Young, Cara Marcy, Chris Namovicz, Risa Edelman, Bill Meroney, Ryan Sims, Jeb Stenhouse, and Paul Donohoo-Vallett. 2017. Variable Renewable Energy in Long-Term Planning Models: A Multi-Model Perspective. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-70528.

Cole, Wesley, Trieu Mai, James Richards, Paritosh Das, and Paul Donohoo-Vallett. 2017. 2017 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-68548. View the associated slide deck.

Donohoo-Vallett, Paul, Trieu Mai, Matthew Mowers, and Gian Porro. 2017. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-67691.

Frew, Bethany, Wesley Cole, Yinong Sun, James Richards, and Trieu Mai. 2017. "8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models." Presented at the International Energy Workshop, College Park, Maryland, July 12–14. NREL/CP-6A20-68869.

Gagnon, Pieter, Wesley J. Cole, Bethany Frew, and Robert Margolis. 2017. "The Impact of Retail Electricity Tariff Evolution on Solar Photovoltaic Deployment." The Electricity Journal. 30(9): 22-28.

Ho, Jonathan, Wesley Cole, and Evangelia Spyrou. 2017. ReEDS-Mexico: A Capacity Expansion Model of the Mexican Power System. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-70076.

Mai, Trieu, Eric Lantz, Matthew Mowers, and Ryan Wiser. 2017. The Value of Wind Technology Innovation: Implications for the U.S. Power System, Wind Industry, Electricity Consumers, and Environment. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-70032.

Richards, James, and Wesley J. Cole. 2017. "Assessing the Impact of Nuclear Retirements on the U.S. Power Sector." The Electricity Journal. 30(9): 14-21.

 

Steinberg, Daniel, Dave Bielen, Josh Eichman, Kelly Eurek, Jeff Logan, Trieu Mai, Colin McMillan, Andrew Parker, Laura Vimmerstedt, and Eric Wilson. 2017. Electrification & Decarbonization: Exploring U.S. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Scenarios with Widespread Electrification and Power Sector Decarbonization. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-68214.

Sun, Yinong, and Wesley Cole. 2017. Transmission Flow Methodologies: Approximated DC Flow vs. Pipe Flow along AC Lines. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/PR-6A20-68929.

Wiser, Ryan, Trieu Mai, Dev Millstein, Galen Barbose, Lori Bird, Jenny Heeter, David Keyser, Venkat Krishnan, and Jordan Macknick . 2017. "Assessing the Costs and Benefits of US Renewable Portfolio Standards." Environmental Research Letters 12(2017): 094023. 


2016

Cole, Wesley, Ross Beppler, Owen Zinaman, and Jeffrey Logan. 2016. Considering the Role of Natural Gas in the Deep Decarbonization of the U.S. Electricity Sector. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A50-64654.

Cole, Wesley, Haley Lewis, Ben Sigrin, and Robert Margolis. "Interactions of Rooftop PV Deployment with the Capacity Expansion of the Bulk Power System." Applied Energy 168 (April 2016): 473-81. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.004.

Cole, Wesley, Trieu Mai, Jeffrey Logan, Daniel Steinberg, James McCall, James Richards, Benjamin Sigrin, and Gian Porro. 2016. 2016 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-66939.

Cole, Wesley J., Cara Marcy, Venkat K. Krishnan, and Robert. Margolis. 2016. "Utility-Scale Lithium-Ion Storage Cost Projections for Use in Capacity Expansion Models." In 2016 North American Power Symposium (NAPS), 1–6. Denver, CO.

Cole, Wesley J., Kenneth B. Medlock III, Aditya Jani. "A View to the Future of Natural Gas and Electricity: An Integrated Modeling Approach." Energy Economics (March 2016): In press. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2016.03.005

DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2016. Hydropower Vision: A New Chapter for America's 1st Renewable Electricity Source. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/GO-102016-4869. July 2016.

Eurek, Kelly, Wesley Cole, David Bielen, Nate Blair, Stuart Cohen, Bethany Frew, Jonathan Ho, Venkat Krishnan, Trieu Mai, Benjamin Sigrin, and Daniel Steinberg. 2016. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model Documentation: Version 2016. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-67067.

Frew, Bethany, Trieu Mai, Venkat Krishnan, and Scott Haase. 2016. Utility-Scale Solar Deployment Scenarios of the Western United States: Implications for Solar Energy Zones in Nevada. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-67066.

Krishnan, Venkat, and Wesley Cole. 2016. "Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS." Proceedings of 2016 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, July 2016. View the associated preprint and poster.

Lantz, Eric, Trieu Mai, Donna Heimiller, Jonathan Ho, and Tyler Stehly. 2016. "Opportunities for Wind Power In Low and Mid-Quality Resource Regions." AWEA WINDPOWER 2016 Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, May 25, 2016. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/PR-6A20-66572.

Lantz, Eric, Trieu Mai, Ryan Wiser, and Venkat Krishnan. "Long-term Implications of Sustained Wind Power Growth in the United States: Direct Electric System Impacts and Costs." Applied Energy 179 (October 2016): 832–46. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.07.023

Ibanez, Eduardo, and Owen Zinaman. "Modeling the Integrated Expansion of the Canadian and US power Sectors." The Electricity Journal 29, no. 1 (January-February 2016): 71-80. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2015.12.003

Mai, Trieu, Eric Lantz, Jonathan Ho, Tyler Stehly, and Donna Heimiller. 2016. Outlooks for Wind Power in the United States: Drivers and Trends under a 2016 Policy Environment. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-67058.

Mai, Trieu, Ryan H. Wiser, Galen L. Barbose, Lori Bird, Jenny Heeter, David Keyser, Venkat Krishnan, Jordan Macknick, and Dev Millstein. 2016. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. NRELTP-6A20-67455/LBNL-1006962.

Mai, Trieu, Wesley Cole, Eric Lantz, Cara Marcy, and Benjamin Sigrin. 2016. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-65571.

Melaina, Marc, Brian Bush, Joshua Eichman, Eric Wood, Dana Stright, Venkat Krishnan, David Keyser, Trieu Mai, and Joyce McLaren. 2016. National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-5400-66980.

Tegen, Suzanne, Eric Lantz, Trieu Mai, Donna Heimiller, and Maureen Hand. 2016. An Initial Evaluation of Siting Considerations on Current and Future Wind Deployment. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-5000-61750.

Wiser, Ryan, Mark Bolinger, Garvin Heath, David Keyser, Eric Lantz, Jordan Macknick, Trieu Mai, Dev Millstein. 2016. "Long-term Implications of Sustained Wind Power Growth in the United States: Potential Benefits and Secondary Impacts." Applied Energy 179(1): 146-158.

Wiser, Ryan, Dev Millstein, Trieu Mai, Jordan Macknick, Alberta Carpenter, Stuart Cohen, Wesley Cole, Bethany Frew, and Garvin Heath. "The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States." Energy 113 (October 2016): 472–86. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2016.07.068.

Wiser, Ryan, Trieu Mai, Dev Millstein, Jordan Macknick, Alberta Carpenter, Stuart Cohen, Wesley Cole, Bethany Frew, and Garvin A. Heath. 2016. On the Path to SunShot: The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-65628.


2015

Cole, Wesley, Trieu Mai, Kelly Eurek, Daniel C. Steinberg, and Robert Margolis. "Considering the Role of Solar Generation under Rate-Based Targets in the EPA's Proposed Clean Power Plan." Paper presented at Energy Policy Institute's Fifth Annual Energy Policy Research Conference. The Electricity Journal 28, no. 8 (October 2015): 20-28. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2015.09.002

DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2015. WindVision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States. 2015. Washington, DC: Department of Energy. DOE/GO-102015-4557.

Macknick, Jordan, and Stuart Cohen. 2015. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-63011. 

Macknick, Jordan, Stuart Cohen, Robin Newmark, Andrew Martinez, Patrick Sullivan, and Vince Tidwell. 2015. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-64270.

Mai, Trieu, Wesley Cole, Venkat Krishnan, Mark Bolinger. "Impact of Federal Tax Policy on Utility-Scale Solar Deployment Given Financing Interactions." Presented by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO, September 2015. NREL/PR-6A20-65014.

Sullivan, Patrick, Wesley Cole, Nate Blair, Eric Lantz, Venkat Krishnan, Trieu Mai, David Mulcahy, and Gian Porro. 2015. 2015 Standard Scenarios Annual Report: U.S. Electric Sector Scenario Exploration. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-64072.

Wiser, Ryan, Eric Lantz, Trieu Mai, Jose Zayas, Edgar DeMeo, Ed Eugeni, Jessica Lin-Powers, and Richard Tusing. "Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States." The Electricity Journal 28, no. 9 (November 2015): 120-32. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2015.09.016.

Zinaman, O., E. Ibanez, D. Heimiller, K. Eurek, and T. Mai. 2015. Modeling the Integrated Expansion of the Canadian and U.S. Power Sectors with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-63797.


2014

Arent, D., J. Pless, T. Mai, R. Wiser, M. Hand, S. Baldwin, G. Heath, J. Macknick, M. Bazilian, A. Schlosser, and P. Denholm. "Implications of High Renewable Electricity Penetration in the U.S. for Water Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, and Materials Supply." Applied Energy 123, no. 15 (June 2014): 368-77. NREL/JA-6A20-59175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.022

Cochran, J., T. Mai, and M. Bazilian. "Meta-Analysis of High-Penetration Renewable Energy Scenarios." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 29 (January 2014): 246-53. NREL/JA-6A20-58764. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.089

Cohen, S. M., J. Macknick, K. Averyt, and J. Meldrum. 2014. "Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion." In Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Power Conference. 2014, Baltimore. 

Lantz, E., D. Steinberg, M. Mendelsohn, O. Zinaman, T.L. James, G. Porro, M. Hand, T. Mai, J. Logan, J. Heeter, and L. Bird. 2014. Implications of a PTC Extension on U.S. Wind Deployment. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-61663.

Mai, T., M.M. Hand, S.F. Baldwin, R.H. Wiser, G.L. Brinkman, P. Denholm, D.J. Arent, G. Porro, D. Sandor, D.J. Hostick, M. Milligan, E.A. DeMeo, and M. Bazilian. "Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States." IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy 5, no. 2, (April 2014): 372-78. NREL/JA-6A20-58804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2013.2290472

Mai, T., D. Mulcahy, M.M. Hand, and S.F. Baldwin. "Envisioning a Renewable Electricity Future for the United States." Energy 65, no. 1 (February 2014): 374-86. NREL/JA-6A20-58511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.11.029

Sigrin, B., P. Sullivan, E. Ibanez, and R. Margolis. 2014. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-61182.

Sullivan, P., K. Eurek, and R. Margolis. 2014. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-61185.

Sullivan, P., C. Uriarte, and W. Short. "Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in the U.S. Electric Sector: A ReEDS Analysis." 2014. Energy Journal 35(SI1) (2014): 101-14. NREL/JA-6A20-62934. http://dx.doi.org/10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.6

Zinaman, O., T. Mai, E. Lantz, R. Gelman, R. and G. Porro. "ReEDS Modeling of the President's 2020 U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation Goal." Presented by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO, 2014. NREL/PR-6A20-62077.


2013

Clemmer, S., J. Rogers, S. Sattler, J. Macknick, and T. Mai. "Modeling Low-Carbon US Electricity Futures to Explore Impacts on National and Regional Water Use." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 1 (January-March 2013). NREL/JA-6A20-56243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015004

Denholm, P., R. Margolis, T. Mai, G. Brinkman, E. Drury, M. Hand, and M. Mowers. "Bright Future: Solar Power as a Major Contributor to the U.S. Grid." IEEE Power and Energy Magazine 11, no. 2 (March 2013): 22-32. NREL/JA-6A20-57243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPE.2012.2234404

Eurek, K., P. Denholm, R. Margolis, and M. Mowers. 2013. Sensitivity of Utility-Scale Solar Deployment Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market and Performance Assumptions. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-55836.

Logan, J., A. Lopez, T. Mai, C. Davidson, M. Bazilian, and D. Arent. "Natural Gas Scenarios in the U.S. Power Sector." Energy Economics. 40 (November 2013): 183-95. NREL/JA-6A50-57087. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2013.06.008

Martinez, A., K. Eurek, T. Mai, and A. Perry. 2013. Integrated Canada-U.S. Power Sector Modeling with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-56724.


2012

Denholm, P., M. Hand, T. Mai, R. Margolis, G. Brinkman, E. Drury, M. Mowers, and C. Turchi. 2012. Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-56294.

Ibanez, E., T. Mai, and L. Coles. 2012. "Analyzing the Deployment of Large Amounts of Offshore Wind to Design an Offshore Transmission Grid in the United States: Preprint." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-5500-56262.

Logan, J., G. Heath, J. Macknick, E. Paranhos, W. Boyd, K. Carlson. 2012. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A50-55538.

Lopez, A., J. Logan, and T. Mai. 2012. "U.S. Electric Power Futures: Preliminary Results." Presented at the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, Golden, CO, April 2012. NREL/PR-6A20-55826.

Mai, T. "Renewable Electricity Futures." Presented online for the Power Systems Engineering Research Center Webinar, September 2012. NREL/PR-6A20-56168.

Mignone, B. K., T. Alfstad, A. Bergman, K. Dubin, R. Duke, P. Friley, A, Martinez, M. Mowers, K. Palmer, A. Paul, S. Showalter, D. Steinberg, M. W, and F. Wood. "Cost-Effectiveness and Economic Incidence of a Clean Energy Standard." Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy 1, no. 3 (2012): 59-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.5547/2160-5890.1.3.5

Rausch, S., and M. Mowers. 2012. "Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Clean and Renewable Energy Standards for Electricity." MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Report Series 225 (July 2012).

NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). 2012. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-52409.

SunShot Vision Study: February 2012. 2012. Washington, DC: Department of Energy. NREL/BK-5200-47927; DOE/GO-102012-3037.


2003–2011 Publications

20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply. 2008. Contributions by W. Short and N. Blair. Washington, DC: Department of Energy. DOE/DOE/GO-102008-2567.

Bird, L., C. Chapman, J. Logan, J. Sumner, and W. Short. 2010. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A2-48258.

Bird, L., C. Chapman, J. Logan, J. Sumner, and W. Short. 2011. "Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector." Energy Policy 39, no. 5 (May 2011): 2573-85. NREL/JA-6A20-50749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.02.025

Blair, N., M. Hand, W. Short, and P. Sullivan. 2008. "Modeling Sensitivities to the 20% Wind Scenario Report with the WinDS Model." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-670-43511.

Blair, N., W. Short, and D. Heimiller. 2005. "Reduced Form of Detailed Modeling of Wind Transmission and Intermittency for Use in Other Models: Preprint." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-620-38139. View an associated posted.

Blair, N., W. Short, and M. Mehos. 2008. "Modeling the Impact of State and Federal Incentives on Concentrating Solar Power Market Penetration." 2008 14th Biennial CSP SolarPACES (Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems) Symposium, Las Vegas, Nevada. March 2008. NREL/CP-670-42851.

Blair, N., W. Short, M. Mehos, and D. Heimiller. 2006. "Concentrating Solar Deployment System (CSDS) — A New Model for Estimating U.S. Concentrating Solar Power Market Potential." Presented at Solar 2006, July 2006.

Blair, N., W. Short, P. Denholm, and D. Heimiller. 2006. "Long-Term National Impacts of State-Level Policies." Presented at AWEA WindPower 2006 Convention, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2006. View the associated preprint.

Laxson, A., M.M. Hand, and N. Blair. 2006. High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-500-40482.

Logan, J., P. Sullivan, W. Short, L. Bird, T.L. James, and M.R. Shah. 2009. Evaluating a Proposed 20% National Renewable Portfolio Standard. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A2-45161.

Short, W. 2007. Regions in Energy Market Models. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-620-40506.

Short, W., N. Blair, P. Denholm, and D. Heimiller. 2006. "Modeling the Penetration of Wind Energy Into the U.S. Electric Market." Presented at the CNLS 26th Annual Conference, Los Alamos, NM, August 2006.

Short, W., N. Blair, and D. Heimiller. 2003. Long-Term Potential of Wind Power in the United States. Solar Today (November/December 2003): 28-29. NREL/JA-620-34871.

Short, W., N. Blair, and D. Heimiller. 2004. "Modeling Renewable Energy Systems and Policies — Challenges and Approaches." A.A.M. Sayigh, ed. Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress VIII (WREC 2004), Denver, Colorado (CD-ROM). [Amsterdam]: Elsevier, Ltd., Monterey, CA, August 2004. NREL/CP-620-36848.

Short, W., N. Blair, and D. Heimiller. 2004. "Projected Impact of Federal Policies on U.S. Wind Market Potential: Preprint." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-620-36052.

Short, W., N. Blair, and D. Heimiller. 2005. "Modeling the Market Potential of Hydrogen from Wind and Competing Sources: Preprint." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-620-38138. View the associated poster.

Short, W., N. Blair, D. Heimiller, and K. Parks. 2005. "WinDS-H2 Model and Analysis." Presented Presented by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO, May 2005.

Short, W., N. Blair, D. Heimiller, and V. Singh. 2003. "Modeling the Long-Term Market Penetration of Wind in the United States." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-620-34469.

Short, W., and P. Denholm. 2006. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-620-39729.

Short, W., and P. Sullivan. 2007. "Modeling the National Potential for Offshore Wind: Preprint." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-640-41803.

Short, W., P. Sullivan, T. Mai, M. Mowers, C. Uriarte, N. Blair, D. Heimiller, and A. Martinez. 2011. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-46534.

Sullivan, P., W. Short, and N. Blair. 2008. "Modeling the Benefits of Storage Technologies to Wind Power." Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-670-43510.