National and Regional Grid Integration Studies
Western Wind and Solar Integration Study
- Phase 3 (2014) Examined the large-scale stability and frequency response with high wind and solar penetration in the Western United States.
- Phase 2 (2013) Assessed impacts of cycling fossil-fueled power plants on emission and wear-and-tear costs.
- Phase 1 (2010) Investigated integration of large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the Western Interconnection.
Renewable Electricity Futures Study (2012) Explored implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels—from 30% up to 90% of all U.S. electricity generation—in 2050.
Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (2010) Examined the operational impact of 20%–30% wind energy penetration on the power system of the Eastern Interconnect of the United States.
20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply (2008) Examined costs, challenges, and key impacts of generating 20% of the nation's electricity from wind energy in 2030.
A Review of Variable Generation Forecasting in the West: July 2013 – March 2014 (2014) Industry survey on VG forecasting practices, lessons learned, and priorities.
Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions (2013) Explored renewable energy integration mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the United States and internationally.
Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy (2014) Estimated the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators for wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%.
Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (2013) 21st Century Power Partnership. Looked at a coal plant that cost-effectively operates as a flexible resource.
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 – December 2013 (2014) Studied the costs and benefits of retrofitting fossil units for improved operational flexibility.
Value of Demand Response: Quantities from Production Cost Modeling (Presentation) (2014) Discussed the value of co-optimized DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services.
Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage (2013) Evaluated how the value of energy storage changes when adding variable renewable generation to the grid.
Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation (2014) Reviewed market design approaches focused on revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability.
Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (2012) Documented diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries.
Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricit Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems (2013) Reviewed wholesale power market designs that help ensure adequacy, security, and flexibility.