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High Renewable Generation

NREL's grid integration studies use state-of-the-art modeling and analysis techniques to evaluate the operational and infrastructure impacts of high renewable generation penetrations at regional and national scales.
As requirements for renewable electricity generation increase, with some states setting goals for as high as 100% renewables, the question arises: How much can renewables contribute to future electricity demand?

NREL's grid integration studies show that:

  • The U.S. electric system is operable with 20%–50% variable generation from wind and solar power in the regional and national scenarios examined to date.
  • Increased electric system flexibility, needed to enable electricity supply-demand balance with high levels of renewable generation, can come from a portfolio of supply- and demand-side options, including flexible conventional generation, grid storage, new transmission, more responsive loads, and changes in power system operations.
  • The abundance and diversity of U.S. renewable energy resources can support multiple combinations of renewable technologies that result in deep reductions in electric sector greenhouse gas emissions and water use.

Featured Studies

Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

Renewable Electricity Futures Study

North American Renewable Integration Study

Los Angeles 100% Renewable Energy Study

Data and Tools

Find out more about NREL's grid integration analysis approach (tools, models, and data):

  • Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a long-term capacity-expansion model for the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States.
  • Commercial production simulation models are used to help validate ReEDS results and to better verify the basic operational feasibility of future potential scenarios.
  • Technology cost and performance data of electricity generation technologies are documented in Transparent Cost Database/Open Energy Information.


Trieu Mai

Senior Energy Analyst | 303-384-7566