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Publications

NREL develops publications, including conference papers and presentations, about its R&D activities concerning vehicle ancillary loads reduction.

Some of the following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Press Ctrl+F and enter key words to search for documents that address specific subjects of interest.

Papers, Presentations, and Posters

2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2005 | 2004 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994

2009

Assessment of Hypothermia Blankets Using an Advanced Thermal Manikin
Conference paper
Source: Rugh, J., NREL; Barazanji, K., U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory
Presented at the 2009 International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics (ICEE), August 2-7, 2009, Boston, Massachusetts.

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2008

Vehicle Ancillary Load Reduction Project Close-Out Report: An Overview of the Task and a Compilation of the Research Results
Technical report
Source: Rugh, J.; Farrington, R.
NREL Report No. TP-540-42454, January 2008.

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2007

An Overview of Vehicle Test and Analysis Results from NREL's A/C Fuel Use Reduction Research
Conference paper
Source: Bharathan, D.; Chaney, L.; Farrington, R.; Lustbader, J.; Keyser, M.; and Rugh, J. Presented at the 8th Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference, Nottingham, UK, May 20-24, 2007.

Reduction in Vehicle Temperatures and Fuel Use from Cabin Ventilation, Solar-Reflective Paint, and New Solar-Reflective Glazing
Conference paper
Source: Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Lustbader, J.; Meyer, J.; Rustagi, M.; Olson, K.; Kogler, R.
Presented at the 2007 SAE World Congress April 16-19, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. SAE Paper No. 2007-01-1194.

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2005

Evaluation of Advanced Automotive Seats to Improve Thermal Comfort and Fuel Economy
Conference paper
Source: Lustbader, J. Presented at the Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference and Exhibition, May 2005, Toronto, Canada. SAE paper no. 2005-01-2056.

Predicting Human Thermal Comfort in Automobiles
Conference paper
Source: Rugh, J.; Bharathan, D. Presented at the Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference and Exhibition, May 2005, Toronto, Canada. SAE paper no. 2005-01-2008.

SAE Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program
Presentation
Source: Presented at the Mobile Air Conditioning Summit, March 15-16, 2005, in Sacramento, California, by John Rugh.

Using a Sweating Manikin, Controlled by a Human Physiological Model, to Evaluate Liquid Cooling Garments
Conference paper
Source: Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.; Bharathan, D.; Paul, H.; Bue, G.; Trevino, L. Presented at the International Conference On Environmental Systems July 2005, Rome, Italy. SAE paper no. 2005-01-2971.

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2004

Ancillary Load Reduction Task Overview
Presentation
Source: John Rugh, Desikan Bharathan, Jason Lustbader, Matthew Keyser, August 2004.

Comparison of Indoor Vehicle Thermal Soak Tests to Outdoor Tests
Paper
Source: Rugh, J.; Malaney, V. (2004) SAE paper no. 2004-01-1376, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Comparison of Two Mobile A/C LCCP Analyses
Presentation
Source: Presented at the Alternate Refrigerant Systems Symposium, June 28-July 1, 2004, in Scottsdale, Arizona, by John Rugh.

Heat Generated Cooling Opportunities
Paper
Source: Hendricks, T.; Johnson, V.; Keyser, M. (2004) Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Predicting Human Thermal Comfort in a Transient Non-Uniform Thermal Environment
Paper
Source: Rugh, J.; Farrington, R.; Bharathan, D.; Vlahinos, A.; Burke, R.; Huizenga, C.; Zhang, H. (2004) European Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol. 92. The original publication is available at springerlink.com.

Significant Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions by Improving Vehicle Air Conditioning
Presentation
Paper
Source: Presented at the 15th Annual Earth Technologies Forum and Mobile Air Conditioning Summit, April 15, 2004, by John Rugh, NREL; Valerie Hovland, Mesoscopic Devices; and Stephen Andersen, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Use of a Thermal Manikin to Evaluate Human Thermoregulatory Responses in Transient, Non-Uniform, Thermal Environments
Paper
Source: Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.; Bharathan, D.; Burke, R. (2004) SAE paper no. 2004-01-2345, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

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2002

Fuel Used for Vehicle Air Conditioning: A State-by-State Thermal Comfort-Based Approach
Paper
Source: Johnson, V. (2002) SAE paper no. 2002-01-1957, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Heat Generated Cooling Opportunities in Vehicles
Paper
Source: Johnson, V. (2002) SAE paper no. 2002-01-1969, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Integrated Numerical Modeling Process for Evaluating Automobile Climate Control Systems
Paper
Source: Rugh, J. (2002) SAE paper no. 2002-01-1956, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

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2001

Design and Transient Simulation of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems
Paper
Source: Cullimore, B.; Hendricks, T. (2001) SAE paper no. 2001-01-1692, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Effect of Solar Reflective Glazing on Ford Explorer Climate Control, Fuel Economy, and Emissions
Paper
Source: Rugh, J.; Hendricks, T.; Koram, K. (2001) SAE paper no. 2001-01-3077, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

The Impact of Metal-Free Solar Reflective Film on Vehicle Climate Control
Paper
Source: Rugh, J.; Farrington, R.; Boettcher, J. (2001) SAE paper no. 2001-01-1721, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Integrated Modeling to Predict Occupant Thermal Comfort
Paper
Source: Farrington, R.; Barber, G.; Hendricks, T.; Marion, W.; Markel, T.; McGuffin, R.; Rugh, J. (2001) . Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, presented at the 2001 American Trucking Association Conference.

Optimization of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems Using Transient Air Conditioning Performance Analysis
Paper
Source: Hendricks, T. (2001) SAE paper no. 2001-01-1734, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

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2000

Effect of Solar-Reflective Glazing on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Thermal Comfort
Paper
Source: Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.; Barber, G. (2000) SAE paper no. 2000-01-2694, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

Innovative Techniques for Decreasing Advanced Vehicle Auxiliary Loads
Paper
Source: Rugh, J.; Howard, R.; Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Blake, D. (2000) 2000-01-1562, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

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1999

Overview: Auxiliary Load Reduction Fact Sheet
Factsheet

Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Paper
Source: Farrington, R.; Anderson, R.; Blake, D.; Burch, S.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J. (1999). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, presented at the VTMS4.

Bactericidal Activity of Photocatalytic TiO2 Reaction: An Understanding Toward Its Killing Mechanism
Abstract: When titanium dioxide (TiO2) is irradiated with near UV light, the semiconductor exhibits strong bactericidal activity. In this study, we presented the first evidence that the lipid peroxidation reaction was the underlying mechanism of cell death of Escherichia coli K-12 upon irradiation with the TiO2 photocatalyst. Using the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index to assess cell membrane damage via lipid peroxidation, we observed an exponential increase in MDA production reaching a level of 1.1 nmoles?mgcdw-1 in the end of 30 min of illumination, and its kinetics paralleled cell death. Under this condition, a concomitant loss of 80 to 98% of the cell respiratory activity was also detected, as measured by both the O2 uptake and the reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride from succinate as the electron donor. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation and the simultaneous losses of both the membrane-dependent respiratory activity and the cell viability depended strictly on the presence of both light and TiO2. We concluded that TiO2 photocatalysis promoted the peroxidation of the polyunsaturated phospholipid component of the lipid membrane initially and induced a major disorder of the E. coli cell membrane. Subsequently, essential functions relying on an intact membrane architecture such as respiratory activity was lost and cell death was inevitable.
Source: Maness, P.-C.; Smolinski, S.; Blake, D.; Huang, Z.; Wolfrum, E.; Jacoby, W. (1999). Applied Environmental Microbiology (65:9); pp. 4094-98.

New Mode of Bactericidal Activity of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst
Paper
Source: Huang, Z.; Maness, P.-C.; Blake, D.; Jacoby, W.; Wolfrum, E.; Smolinski, S. (1999). Jourmal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry.

Bibliography of Work on the Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air (Update Number 3, to January 1999)
Paper
Source: Blake, D. (1999). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Application of the Photocatalytic Chemistry of Titanium Dioxide to Disinfection and the Killing of Cancer Cells
Paper
Source: Blake, D.; Maness, P.-C.; Huang, Z.; Wolfrum, E.; Huang, J.; Jacoby, W. Separation and Purification Methods (28:1); pp. 1-50.

Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Presentation
Source: Presented at the VTMS4 Conference on May 26, 1999 in London, UK by Rob Farrington Ph.D., P.E.

Integrated Modeling—May 1999 (subset of several other presentations)
Presentation

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1998

Opportunities to Reduce Vehicle Climate Control Loads
Paper
Source: Farrington, R.; Brodt, D.; Burch, S.; Keyser, M. (1998). National Renewable Energy Laboratory, presented at the EVS-15 Conference.

Steady-State Load Reduction (Cabin Air Cleaning): Investigation of the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Low-Level Carbonyl Compounds
Abstract: Though the bulk of research involving photocatalytic oxidn. (PCO) of volatile org. compds. (VOCs) has involved the remediation of pollutants at high inlet concns., there has been some implication that PCO can be used to reduce exposure to low concns. of VOCs and improve the quality of indoor air. The high conversion rates previously reported for PCO of VOCs in the parts-per-million (ppm) range may not, however, be applicable to concns. in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range that are more typical of indoor air quality (IAQ) issues. This paper reports on an examn. of the operational characteristics of four PCO reactor designs used for the oxidn. of VOCs in the ppb concn. range. Reactor efficiency is examd. for three low mol. wt. carbonyl compds. commonly assocd. with IAQ issues: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone. The measured response is the destruction of carbonyl reactants. Variables include flow stream velocity and reactor residence time. Oxidn. of carbonyl compds. is also examd. as a function of UV (UV) radiation intensity. PCO of the formaldehyde and acetone was nearly 100% for all reactor designs. To assist comparison of the reactor designs, oxidn. efficiency of trichloroethylene (TCE) was evaluated at inlet concn. in the parts-per-million by vol. (ppmv) range.
Source: Source: Lanning, L. and J.; Anderson, L.; Jacoby, W.; Chornet, N. (1998). Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association (48:10); pp. 979-84.

Mineralization of Bacterial Cell Mass on a Photocatalytic Surface in Air
Abstract: Whole cells deposited on a TiO2-coated surface were oxidized in air to CO2 via photocatalysis. The first evidence that org. matter in whole cells can be completely oxidized is presented. Three exptl. techniques were used to monitor this reaction: SEM, 14C radioisotope labeling, and batch reactor measurements. SEM expts. illustrated the disappearance of Escherichia coli cell mass. 14C radioisotope labeling expts. established that the C content of E. coli was oxidized to CO2 with substantial closure of the mass balance. Batch reactor expts. corroborated the mass balance and provided a preliminary indication of the rate of the oxidn. reaction. Results provided evidence that a photocatalytic surface used for disinfection can also be self-cleaning in an air/solid system.
Source: Jacoby, W.; Maness, P.-C.; Wolfrum, E.; Blake, D.; Fennell, J. (1998). Environmental Science and Technology (32:17); pp. 2650-53.

Photochemical Pollution Control. The Final Report of the Solar Industrial Program Solar Detoxification Project
Abstract: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1998. Contains full text of more than 90 reports, papers, and documents produced by the Solar Industrial Program relating to solar detoxification of air and water using solar technology. Work on photocatalytic and direct solar/thermal methods is included.
Source: Blake, D.; Carlson-Boyd, L.; Kissel, G. (1998). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Opportunities to Reduce Vehicle Climate Control Loads
Presentation
Source: Presented at the EVS-15 Conference in Belgium, 1998 by Rob Farrington Ph.D., P.E.

The Cool Car: Reducing Climate Control Loads in Vehicles
Presentation
Source: Presented at the MRI Mid-Year Trustees Meeting in 1998 by Rob Farrington Ph.D., P.E.

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1996

Heterogeneous Photocatalysis for Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air
Paper
Source: Jacoby, W.; Blake, D.; Fennell, J.; Boulter, J.; Vargo, L.; George, M.; Dolberg, S. (1996). Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association (46:9); pp. 891-98.

Bibliography of Work on the Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air (Update Number 2, to October 1996)
Paper
Source: Blake, D. (1997). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

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1995

Photocatalytic Reactor with Flexible Supports
Patent: No. 5449443 - Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g. UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream.
Source: Jacoby, W.; Blake, D. Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO, assignee. U.S. (12 September 1995).

Bibliography of Work on the Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air (Update Number 1, to June 1995)
Paper
Source: Blake, D. (1995). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

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1994

Bibliography of Work on the Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air
Paper
Source: Blake, D. (1994). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

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1993

Identification and Quantification of By-Products and Intermediates in the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gas-Phase Trichloroethylene
Paper
Source: Blake, D.; Jacoby, W.; Nimlos, M.; Noble, R. (1993). 6th International Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies. M. Macias and M. Sanchez, eds. Madrid, Spain. pp. 1223-31.

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1992

Use of Infra-Red Thermography for Automotive Climate Control Analysis
Paper
Source: Burch, S.; Hassani, V.; Penney, T. (1992). SAE paper no. 921136, Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

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