Electric Vehicle Grid Integration
NREL's electric vehicle grid integration work supports the development and implementation of electrified transportation systems, particularly those that integrate renewable-based vehicle charging systems.
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)—including all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles—offer the opportunity to shift transportation energy demands from petroleum to electricity, but broad adoption will require integration with other energy systems.
Research at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility examines the interaction of building energy systems, utility grids, renewable energy sources, and PEVs—integrating energy management solutions and maximizing potential greenhouse gas reductions and cost savings. This facility is used in tandem with NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility to explore these approaches at a systems scale.
NREL also leads the Energy Department's Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project, which aims to enable energy efficiency, renewable power, and sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid.
NREL collaborates with automakers, charging station manufacturers, utilities, fleet operators, and other national laboratories to enable PEV communication with the smart grid and to create opportunities for vehicles to play an active role in building and grid management.
NREL-designed strategies and models support the development of transportation electrification and the expansion of renewable generation through:
- Understanding vehicle use profiles, PEV benefits, and battery life challenges
- Integrating renewable resources (solar and wind) with vehicle charging
- Developing and testing grid interoperability standards
- Exploring grid services technology opportunities.
Integrated systems functionality efforts focus on:
- Managed charging — Evaluating the functionality and value of load management to reduce charging costs and contribute to standards development
- Emergency backup power — Exploring strategies to enable the export of vehicle power to assist in grid outages and disaster-recovery efforts
- Local power quality — Leverage charge system power electronics to monitor and enhance local power quality and improve grid stability in scenarios with a high concentration of renewables
- Bi-directional power flow — Developing and evaluating integrated vehicle-to-grid systems for reducing peak-power demands.
NREL is also exploring the potential of wireless power transfer technologies, including electrified roadways, to reduce petroleum consumption and vehicle operating costs while extending EV range, as depicted in this e-roadway animation.
Research results from NREL's electric vehicle grid integration work support NREL’s Sustainable Mobility Initiative, which approaches sustainable transportation as a network of travelers, services, and environments—rather than just vehicles and roads—using connectivity and automation to optimize mobility and significantly reduce related energy consumption.
NREL's Publications Database offers a wide variety of documents related to plug-in electric vehicles, grid integration, renewable generation, and electrified transportation. The following selection provides a sampling of documents about NREL's electric vehicle grid integration research and demonstration efforts.
- EV-Grid Integration (EVGI) Control and System Implementation — Research Overview. M. Kisacikoglu, T. Markel, A. Meintz, J. Zhang, and M. Jun. (2016)
- Wireless Power Transfer: Grid Impacts Analysis. T. Markel, A. Meintz, and J. Gonder. (2015)
- Implementation Scenarios for Electric Vehicle Roadway Wireless Power Transfer. A. Meintz, T. Markel, E. Burton, L. Wang, J. Gonder, A. Brooker, A. Konan. (2015)
- PEV Grid Integration Research: Vehicles, Buildings, and Renewables Working Together. T. Markel. (2015)
- Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study: Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration. T. Markel, A. Meintz, K. Hardy, B. Chen, T. Bohn, J. Smart, D. Scoffield, R. Hovsapian, S. Saxena, J. MacDonald, S. Kiliccote, K. Kahl, and R. Pratt. (2015)
- Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility. A. Breitenbach. (2015)
- Connectivity and Convergence: Transportation for the 21st Century. C. Gearhart, J. Gonder, and T. Markel. IEEE Electrification Magazine. (2014)
- PEV Integration with Renewables. T. Markel. (2014)
- PEV Grid Integration Research: Vehicles, Buildings, and Renewables Working Together. T. Markel. (2014)
- Plug-in Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables. M. Simpson and T. Markel. (2012)
- Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage. M. Simpson. (2012)
- DOD/NREL Model Integrates Vehicles, Renewables, and Microgrid. A. Breitenbach. (2011)
- Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations. K. Anderson, T. Markel, M. Simpson, J. Leahey, C. Rockenbaugh, L. Lisell, K. Burman, and M. Singer. (2011)
- Electric Vehicle Grid Integration for Sustainable Military Installations. M. Simpson. (2011)
- Interim Test Procedures for Evaluating Electrical Performance and Grid Integration of Vehicle-to-Grid Applications. S. Chakraborty, W. Kramer, B. Kroposki, G. Martin, P. McNutt, M. Kuss, T. Markel, and A. Hoke. (2011)
- Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method. M. Kuss, T. Markel, and W. Kramer. (2010)
- Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation. T. Markel. (2010)
- Value of Plug-in Vehicle Grid Support Operation. T. Markel, M. Kuss, and M. Simpson. (2010)
- Vehicle to Micro-Grid: Leveraging Existing Assets for Reliable Energy Management. M. Simpson, T. Markel, and M. O'Keefe. (2010)
For more information about NREL's electric vehicle grid integration work, contact Tony Markel.