Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)
GM pack-level validation of CAEBAT tool using prototype for 24-cell module. Left: CAD geometry model. Right: FLUENT simulations. Images: Courtesy of GM
NREL enhancements to the framework functionality of cell domain models provided complete tool sets for CAEBAT partner simulation of all major cell form-factors (from left to right): stack pouch, wound cylindrical, and wound prismatic cells. Images: NREL
CD-adapco model construction showing external battery case and two variations of wound prismatic cell configuration for combined flow, thermal, and electrochemical simulation using CAEBAT tools. Images: Courtesy of CD-adapco
NREL's MSMD model quantifies the impacts of electrical/thermal pathway design on uneven charge-discharge kinetics in a wide range of large-format wound prismatic cells. Images: NREL
Thermal-electrochemical models of Li-ion battery cells and packs. Wound electrode cell performance simulation (top left); time evolution of short in a prismatic cell (top right); pack simulation with cooling (bottom). Images: Courtesy of EC Power
The Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) project is accelerating the development and lowering the cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries for next-generation electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). CAEBAT efforts focus on:
- Developing engineering tools to design battery cells and packs
- Shortening the battery prototyping and manufacturing processes
- Improving overall battery performance, safety, and lifespan
- Reducing expenses related to battery development and production.
The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy initiated the CAEBAT project in 2010 to facilitate the development of computer-aided engineering tools based on battery models developed by the national laboratories.
NREL brings its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries, known as a multi-scale multi-dimensional (MSMD) model framework, to the CAEBAT project. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety, and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.
CAEBAT Industry Teams
NREL coordinates CAEBAT activities with battery, vehicle, and software industries to develop the first generation of electrochemical-thermal CAEBAT tools for the design and simulation of battery cells and packs.
After a competitive selection process, NREL awarded subcontracts worth $7 million to the following three industry teams:
- EC Power, Penn State University, Johnson Controls, Inc., and Ford
- General Motors, ANSYS, and ESim
- CD-adapco, Battery Design LLC, A123 Systems, and Johnson Controls Inc.
Each CAEBAT team is working independently to develop and validate modeling and design tools for EDV batteries, with an emphasis on integrating electrochemical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal physics. Teams are also exploring different chemistries, cell geometries, and battery pack configurations.
These industry partners are contributing 50% of project costs, bringing the overall CAEBAT budget to $14 million for three years.
In support of the CAEBAT project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing an open-architecture software interface to link the models developed by different teams into the CAEBAT suite of tools. ORNL is also developing input-output interfaces to allow utilization of models across different platforms.
Phase 1 CAEBAT Publications
NREL's Publications Database offers a wide variety of documents related to the development of batteries and energy storage systems for EDVs. The following publications document CAEBAT project activities:
Multi-physics Modeling for Improving Li-Ion Battery Safety
Source: Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.-H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Yang, C. (2015). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Presented at Next Generation Batteries 2015/Lithium Battery Safety, San Diego, California; 21-22 April 2015 NREL Report No. PR-5400-64212.
Significant Enhancement of Computational Efficiency in Nonlinear Multiscale Battery Model for Computer Aided Engineering
Source: Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.; Graf, P.; Jun, M.; Yang, C.; Li, G.; Li, S.; Hochman, A.; Tselepidakis, D.; White, J. (2014). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Presented at the Department of Energy (DOE) 2014 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, 16-20 June 2014, Washington, D.C. 24 pp.; NREL Report No. PR-5400-61865.
Three Dimensional Thermal-, Electrical-, and Electrochemical-Coupled Model for Cylindrical Wound Large Format Lithium-ion Batteries
Source: Lee, K. J.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H. (2013) Journal of Power Sources. Vol. 241, 1 November 2013; pp. 20-32; NREL Report No. JA-5400-57328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.03.007
Three-Dimensional Multi-Physics Model for a Li-Ion Battery
Source: Guo, M.; Kim, G. H.; White, R. E. (2013). Journal of Power Sources. Vol. 240, 15 October 2013; pp. 80-94; NREL Report No. JA-5400-58914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.03.170
Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)
Source: Ahmad Pesaran; presented at 2013 U.S. DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review & Peer Evaluation Meeting, Arlington, VA; May 14, 2013. NREL Report No. PR-5400-58202.
Multi-Scale Multi-Physics Lithium-Ion Battery Model with Multi-Domain Modular Framework.
Source: Kim, G. H. (2013). American Chemical Society, Division of Energy and Fuels. Vol. 58(1), April 2013; Washington, DC: American Chemical Society (ACS) pg. 831; NREL Report No. CP-5400-60847.
Battery Capacity Estimation of Low-Earth Orbit Satellite Application
Source: Jun, M.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Smart, M. C. (2012). International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management. Vol. 3(2), 2012; 9 pp.; NREL Report No. JA-5400-56564.
Accelerating Electric Vehicle Battery Innovation with Multiphysics Simulation
Source: Taeyoung Han (General Motors Research and Development Center), Gi-Heon Kim (NREL), and Lewis Collins (ANSYS, Inc.). Scientific Computing. NREL Report No. JA-5400-56562.
Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering
Source: Ahmad Pesaran, Gi-Heon Kim, Kandler Smith, Shriram Santhanagopalan; presented at the 2012 Automotive Simulation World Congress, Detroit, MI; October 30-31, 2012
Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Li-Ion Batteries
Source: Ahmad Pesaran, G.-H. Kim, K. Smith, S. Santhanagopalan, and K.-J. Lee; presented at Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Annual Merit Review (AMR), May 14-18 2012, Washington, DC. NREL/PR-5400-54425.
Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries
Source: Ahmad Pesaran, Gi-Heon Kim, Kandler Smith, Kyu-Jun Lee, Shriram Santhanagopalan; presented at Advanced Automotive Battery Conference, Battery Modeling Software and Applications Workshop, Orlando, FL; February 6, 2012.
Modeling Detailed Chemistry and Transport for Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) Films in Li-ion Batteries
Source: Colclasure, A. M.; Smith, K. A.; Kee, R. J. (2011). Electrochimica Acta. Vol. 58, 30 December 2011; pp. 33-43; NREL Report No. JA-5400-51570. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2011.08.067
Computer-Aided Optimization of Macroscopic Design Factors for Lithium-Ion Cell Performance and Life
Source: Kandler Smith, Gi-Heon Kim, Ahmad Pesaran; presented at 217th Electrochemical Society Meeting, Vancouver, Canada; April 25-30, 2010.
Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT)
Source: Ahmad A. Pesaran, Gi-Heon Kim, Kandler Smith, Shriram Santhanagopalan, and Kyu-Jin Lee; presented at the 2011 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review & Peer Evaluation Meeting; Arlington, VA; May 9–13, 2011.
A Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries
Source: Kyu-Jin Lee, Kandler Smith, Gi-Heon Kim; presented at Space Power Workshop; Los Angeles, CA; April 18, 2011.
Integrated Lithium-Ion Battery Model Encompassing Multi-Physics in Varied Scales: An Integrated Computer Simulation Tool for Design and Development of EDV Batteries
Source: Gi-Heon Kim, Kandler Smith, Kyu-Jin Lee, Shriram Santhanagopalan, Ahmad Pesaran; presented at The 11th International Advanced Automotive Battery Conference, International Battery Modeling Workshop; Pasadena, CA; January 24–28, 2011.
Multi-Domain Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Encompassing Multi-Physics in Varied Length Scales
Source: Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Pesaran, A.; Journal of the Electrochemical Society. Vol. 158(8), 2011; pp. A955-A969; NREL Report No. JA-5400-51432. doi:10.1149/1.3597614
Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools
Sources: Ahmad Pesaran, Gi-Heon Kim, Kandler Smith; presented at 25th Electric Vehicle Symposium, Shenzhen, China, November 5-9, 2010.
3D Thermal and Electrochemical Model for Spirally Wound Large Format Lithium-ion Batteries
Sources: Kyu-Jin Lee, Gi-Heon Kim, Kandler Smith; presented at 218th ECS Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, Oct 14, 2010.
Computer-Aided Engineering Automotive Batteries
Sources: Ahmad Pesaran, Gi-Heon Kim, Kandler Smith, and Jeremy Neubauer; presented at the AABC 2010 meeting; Orlando, Florida; May 18-21, 2010
2014: "Simulation of Electrolyte Composition Effects on High Energy Lithium-Ion Cells", R. Spotnitz, K. Gering, S. Hartridge, and G. Damblanc, ECS Trans. 2014 58(13): 25-36; doi:10.1149/05813.0025ecst
May 2013: "A new approach to Li-ion battery modeling"
April 2013: R. Spotnitz, Design and Simulation of Spirally-Wound, Lithium-Ion Cells
2012: Spotnitz, R., Kaludercic, B., Muzaferija, S., Peric, M., et al., "Geometry-Resolved Electro-Chemistry Model of Li-Ion Batteries," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 1(1):160-168, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0663.
Zhao, W., Luo, G., and Wang, C.Y. (2015). "Modeling Internal Shorting Process in Large-Format Li-Ion Cells," J. Electrochem. Soc., 162(7), A1352-A1364.
W. Zhao, G. Luo and C.Y. Wang, "Modeling Nail Penetration Process in Large-Format Li-ion Cells," J. Electrochem. Soc., 162 (1) A207-A217 (2015).
W. Zhao, G. Luo, and C.Y. Wang, "Effect of Tab Design on Large-Format Li-ion Cell Performance," Journal of Power Sources 257 70-79 (2014).
G.S. Zhang, L. Cao, S. Ge, C.Y. Wang, C. E. Shaffer, C. D. Rahn, "In Situ Measurement of Temperature Distribution in a Cylindrical Li-ion Cell," to be submitted (2014).
Kalupson, J., Luo, G., and Shaffer, C., "AutoLion™: A Thermally Coupled Simulation Tool for Automotive Li-ion Batteries," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1522, 2013, doi: 10.4271/2013-01-1522. SAE International World Congress and Exhibition, April 16, 2013, Detroit, MI.
Ji, Y., Zhang, Y., and Wang, C.Y. (2013). "Li-Ion Operation at Low Temperatures," J. Electrochem. Soc., 160(4), A636-A649.
Zhang, G., Shaffer, C. E., Wang, C. Y., & Rahn, C. D. (2013). "In-Situ Measurement of Current Distribution in a Li-Ion Cell," J. Electrochem. Soc., 160(4), A610-A615.
Ji, Y., Wang, C.Y. (2013). "Heating Strategies for Li-Ion Batteries Operated from Subzero Temperatures," Electrochimica Acta, 107, 664-674.
Guangsheng Zhang, Christian E. Shaffer, Chao-Yang Wang, and Christopher D. Rahn, "Effects of Non-uniform Current Distribution on Energy Density of Li-ion Cells," J. Electrochem. Soc., 160 A2299-A2305 (2013).
G.S. Zhang, L. Cao, S. Ge, C.Y. Wang, C. E. Shaffer, and C. D. Rahn, "In Situ Measurement of Li-Ion Battery Internal Temperature," 224th ECS Meeting, Abstract #538, San Francisco, CA, USA, Oct. 27 - Nov. 01, 2013.
G. Luo and C.Y. Wang, A Multi-dimensional, Electrochemical-Thermal Coupled Li-ion Battery Model, Chap.6 in Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advanced Materials and Technologies, CRC Press, 2012.
Yang, Xiao Guang, Miller, Ted, and Yu, Paul, Ford Motor Company, "Li-Ion Electrochemical Model," 2012 Automotive Simulation World Congress, October 30-31, 2012, Detroit, MI.
Shaffer, C.E., Wang, C.Y., Luo, G. and Zhao, W., "Safety Analysis Design of Lithium-ion Battery EV Pack through Computer Simulation," Battery Safety 2012, Knowledge Foundation Conference, December 6-7, 2012, Las Vegas, NV.
Shaffer, C.E., and Wang, C.Y., "Thermal Management for Start-up of Li-Ion Batteries," 222nd Meeting of The Electrochemical Society (PRiME 2012), Honolulu, HI, October 7-12, 2012.
Luo, Gang, Shaffer, C.E. and Wang C.Y., "Electrochemical-thermal Coupled Modeling for Battery Pack Design," 222nd Meeting of The Electrochemical Society (PRiME 2012), Honolulu, HI, October 7-12, 2012.
Wei Zhao, C.Y. Wang, Gang Luo, Christian E. Shaffer, "New Findings on Large Li-ion Battery Safety through Computer Simulation," Battery Safety 2011 - Advancements in System Design, Integration, & Testing for Safety & Reliability, November 9-10, 2011, Las Vegas, NV.
Saeed Asgari, Xiao Hu, Michael Tsuk, Shailendra Kaushik, "Application of POD plus LTI ROM to Battery Thermal Modeling: SISO Case," to be presented in 2014 SAE World Congress.
Xiao Hu, Scott Stanton, Long Cai, Ralph E. White, "A Linear Time-Invariant Model for Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Cell Models," Journal of Power Sources 214 (2012) 40-50.
M. Guo and R. E. White, "Mathematical Model for a Spirally-Wound Lithium-Ion Cell," Journal of Power Sources 250 (2014), also presented at the ECS meeting, spring 2014, Orlando, FL.
R. Rebba, J. McDade, S. Kaushik, J. Wang, T. Han, "Verification and Validation of Semi-Empirical Thermal Models for Lithium Ion Batteries," 2014 SAE World Congress, Detroit, MI.
G. Li, S. Li, "Physics-Based CFD Simulation of Lithium-Ion Battery under a Real Driving Cycle," Presentation at 2014 ECS and SMEQ Joint International Meeting, Oct 5-9, 2014, Cancun, Mexico.
G. Li, S. Li, and J. Cao, "Application of the MSMD Framework in the Simulation of Battery Packs," Paper IMECE2014-39882, Proceedings of ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, IMECM 2014, Nov 14-20, 2014, Montreal, Canada.
Y. Dai, L. Cai, and R. E. White, "Simulation and Analysis of Inhomogeneous Degradation in Large Format LiMn2O4/Carbon Cells," J. Electrochem. Soc., 161 (8), 2014.
T. Han, G. Kim, R. White, D. Tselepidakis, "Development of Computer Aided Design Tools for Automotive Batteries," ANSYS Convergence Conference, Detroit, MI, June 5, 2014.
T. Han, M. Fortier, L. Collins, "Accelerating Electric-Vehicle Battery Development with Advanced Simulation," Aug 21, 2014, Webcast seminar organized by SAE International, http://www.sae.org/magazines/webcasts.
Meng Guo, Ralph E. White, "A Distributed Thermal Model for a Li-Ion Electrode Plate Pair," Journal of Power Sources 221 (2013) 334-344.
Ralph E. White, Meng Guo, and Gi-Heon Kim, "A Three-Dimensional Multi-Physics Model for a Li-Ion Battery," Journal of Power Sources, 2013.
Taeyoung Han, Gi-Heon Kim, Lewis Collins, "Multiphysics Simulation Tools Power the Modeling of Thermal Management in Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Systems," ANSYS Quarterly magazine Advantage, 2012.
Taeyoung Han, Gi-Heon Kim, and Lewis Collins, "Development of Computer-Aided Design Tools for Automotive Batteries-CAEBAT," Automotive Simulation World Congress (ASWC), Detroit, October 2012.
Xiao Hu, Scott Stanton, Long Cai, and Ralph E. White, "A Linear Time-Invariant Model for Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium Ion Cell Models," Journal of Power Sources 214 (2012) 40-50.
Xiao Hu, Scott Stanton, Long Cai, and Ralph E. White, "Model Order Reduction for Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium Ion Cell Models," Journal of Power Sources 218 (2012) 212-220.
S. Santhanagopalan, C. Zhang, M. A Sprague, A. Pesaran, "A Representative-Sandwich Model for Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Battery Cell under Quasi-Static Indentation Tests," J. Power Sources, Submitted.
J. Marcicki, X.G.Yang, and P. Rairigh, "Fault Current Measurements During Crush Testing of Electrically Parallel Lithium-Ion Battery Modules," ECS Letters, Submitted.
C. Zhang, S. Santhanagopalan, M. A Sprague, A. Pesaran, "Coupled Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Modeling for Short-Circuit Prediction in a Lithium-Ion Cell under Mechanical Abuse," J. Power Sources, 290, p. 102-113 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.04.162
S. Santhanagopalan, C. Zhang, A. Pesaran, E. Sahraei, Tomasz Wierzbicki, "Electrochemical-Thermal Behavior of Lithium-Ion Cells Subjected to Mechanical Crush." Presented at the AABC in Detroit MI (2015).
A. Pesaran, G.H. Kim, S. Santhanagopalan, "Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling For Accelerated Design of EV Batteries," 28th Electric Vehicle Symposium, Kintex, Korea (2015). http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/63701.pdf
M. Jun, K. Smith, P. Graf, "State-Space Representation of Li-Ion Battery Porous Electrode Impedance Model with Balanced Model Order Reduction," J. Power Sources, 273(1), p.1226-1236 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.02.063
C. Zhang, S. Santhanagopalan, M.A. Sprague, A. A. Pesaran, "Short-Circuit Simulation of Lithium-Ion Battery," 13th US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, San Diego, CA (2015).
G.H. Kim, C. Yang, K. Smith, A. Pesaran, "Integrated Multiscale Multiphysics Modeling of Safety Response in Lithium-Ion Batteries." Presented at the AABC in Detroit, MI (2015).
A. Pesaran, T. Wierzbicki and E. Sahraei, S. Dajka and G. Li, S. Santhanagopalan, C. Zhang, G.H. Kim, M.A. Sprague, "Coupling Mechanical with Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Batteries under Abuse." Presented at the 2015 DOE Annual Merit Review, Washington, D.C. (2015).
G.H. Kim, A. Pesaran, K. Smith, P. Graf, M. Jun, C. Yang, G. Li, S. Li, A. Hochman, D. Tselepidakis, "Significant Enhancement of Computational Efficiency in Nonlinear Multiscale Battery Model for Computer Aided Engineering." Presented at the 2015 DOE Annual Merit Review, Washington D.C. (2015).
S. Santhanagopalan, C. Zhang, M.A. Sprague, A. Pesaran, Jim Marcicki, P. Rairigh, X.G.Yang, Alex Bartlett, "Crash Propagation in Automotive Batteries: Simulations and Validation." Presented at the 2015 DOE Annual Merit Review, Washington D.C. (2015).
P. Barai, K. Smith, C.-F. Chen, G.-H. Kim, P.P. Mukherjee. (2014). "Reduced Order Modeling of Mechanical Degradation Induced Performance Decay in Lithium-Ion Battery Porous Electrodes," J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (9) A1751-A1771, http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/2.0241509jes.
D.R. Diercks, M. Musselman, A. Morgenstern, T. Wilson, M. Kumar, K. Smith, M. Kawase, B.P. Gorman, M. Eberhart, C.E. Packard, "Evidence for Anisotropic Mechanical Behavior and Nanoscale Chemical Heterogeneity in Cycled LiCoO2," J. Electrochem. Soc., 161(11): F3039-F3045; doi:10.1149/2.0071411jes (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/2.0071411jes
K. An, P.Barai, K. Smith, P.P. Mukherjee, "Probing the Thermal Implications in Mechanical Degradation of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes," J. Electrochem. Soc., 161(6): A1058-A1070, (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/2.069406jes.
C. Yang, G.H. Kim, S. Santhanagopalan, A. Pesaran, "Multi-Physics Modeling of Thermal Runaway Propagation in a Li-Ion Battery Module." Presented at the 225th ECS Meeting, Orlando, FL. (2014).
For more information on CAEBAT activities, contact Gi-Heon Kim, 303-275-4437.