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Photovoltaic Reliability Publications

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NREL publishes photovoltaic (PV) reliability journal articles, technical reports, conference papers, and outreach documents. Explore a sampling of our most recent or often-cited publications on PV reliability topics.

Publications from fiscal year 2014 and 2013 are organized by the following topics:

See a summary list of journal articles, conference papers, and subcontract reports published from 2010 through 2012.

Accelerated Testing and Failure Analysis

Berghold, J., Grunow, P., Koch S., Ukar, A., Ebert, M., Fröbel, J., Hacke, P., Herrmann, W., Mathiak, G, Hoffmann, S., Köhl, M, Janke, S. and Pingel, S., "PID Test Round Robins and Outdoor Correlation," 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Sept. 30–Oct. 4, 2013, Frankfurt, Germany (in print).

Bosco, NS, TJ Silverman, J Wohlgemuth, S Kurtz et al, "Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue," 39th IEEE PVSC, Tampa, FL.

Hacke, P., Smith, R., Terwilliger, K., Glick, S., Jordan, D. Johnson, S., Kempe, M., and Kurtz, S., "Acceleration Factor Determination for Potential-Induced Degradation in Crystalline Silicon PV Modules," proceedings of the IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS) 2013, April 14-18, 2013, Monterey, CA, pp. 4B.1.1 - 4B.1.5.

Hacke, P., Smith, R., Terwilliger, K., Perrin, G., Sekulic, W. and Kurtz, S., "Development of an IEC Test for Crystalline Silicon Modules to Qualify Their Resistance to System Voltage Stress," 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Sept. 30–Oct. 4, 2013, Frankfurt, Germany (in print).

Hacke, P., Terwilliger, K., Koch, S., Weber, T., Berghold, J., Hoffmann, S., Ambrosi, H., Koehl, M.; Dietrich, S., Ebert, M., and Mathiak, G., "Initial Results of IEC 62804 Draft Round Robin Testing," Presented at the 2012 Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop, Feb. 28 – Mar. 1, 2012, Golden, CO, NREL Report No. PR-5200-58378.

Hacke, P., Terwilliger, K., and Kurtz, "In-Situ Measurement of Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation in Damp Heat Stress Testing for Estimation of Low-Light Power Performance," Presented at the 23rd Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, Breckenridge, Colorado, July 28–31, 2013. NREL/TP-5200-60044.

Herrero, Rebeca, David C. Miller, Sarah R. Kurtz, Ignacio Antón, and Gabriel Sala, "Novel Scanning Lens Instrument for Evaluating Fresnel Lens Performance: Equipment Development and Initial Results," Proc. CPV Conf. 2013.

Kempe, M.D., A.A. Dameron, and M.O. Reese, "Evaluation of moisture ingress from the perimeter of photovoltaic modules,"Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications (2013) DOI: 10.1002/pip.2374.

Kempe, Michael D., Sarah R. Kurtz, John H. Wohlgemuth, David C. Miller, Matthew O. Reese, Arrelaine A. Dameron, "Modeling of Damp Heat Testing Relative to Outdoor Exposure," Proc. Asian PVSEC, Yokohama, Japan, 2012.

Kempe, Michael D., David C. Miller, John H. Wohlgemuth, Sarah R. Kurtz, John M. Moseley, Qurat-Ul-Ain Syed Jawed Shah, Govindasamy Tamizhmani, Keiichiro Sakurai, Masanao Inoue, Takuya Doi, Atsushi Masuda, Samuel L. Samuels, Crystal E. van der Pan, "Evaluation of Creep in Thermoplastic Encapsulant Materials Deployed Outdoors," Photovoltaics International, 17, 2012, 128-138.

Kempe, M. D. D. Panchagade, M. O. Reese, A. A. Dameron, "Modeling Moisture Ingress Through Polyisobutylene-Based Edge-Seals." Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications.; NREL Report No. JA-5200-57219.

Kempe, M. D., Reese, M. O., Dameron, A. A., "Evaluation of the Sensitivity Limits of Water Vapor Transmission Rate Measurements Using Electrical Calcium Test. Article No. 025109." Review of Scientific Instruments. Vol. 84(2), February 2013; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. JA-5200-56985.

Kempe, Michael D. and John H. Wohlgemuth, "Evaluation of Temperature and Humidity on PV Module Component Degradation." Presented at 39th PVSC, 2013; NREL Report No. AB-5200-57859.

Kurtz, S., J. Wohlgemuth, D. Miller, M. Kempe, D. Jordan, N. Bosco, P. Hacke, M. Yamamichi, M. Kondo, T. Sample, D. Meakin, C. Monokroussos, M. Tamizhmani, V. Bermudez, "A Framework for a Comparative Accelerated Testing Standard for PV Modules," Presented at 39th PVSC, 2013; NREL Report No. CP-5200-57838.

Mann, J. R.; Kempe, M.; Repins, I.; Duda, A.; Glick, S.; Kanevce, A. (2013). "Dry Heat-Induced Effect of Using Silver in CIGS Gridlines." IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. Vol. 3(1), January 2013; pp. 457-460; NREL Report No. JA-5200-56300.

Miller, David C., Jaione Apezteguia, Jayesh G. Bokria, Michael Köhl, Nick E. Powell, Michael E. Smith, Michael D. White, Helen Rose Wilson, and John H. Wohlgemuth, "Examination of an Optical Transmittance Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials," Proc SPIE 2013, 8825-8; NREL Report No. PR-5200-60379.

Miller, David C., Joseph D. Carloni, David K. Johnson, Joel W. Pankow, Erica L. Gjersing, Bobby To, Corinne E. Packard, Cheryl E. Kennedy, and Sarah R. Kurtz, "Investigation of the Changes in Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Specimens After Exposure to Ultra-Violet Light, Heat, and Humidity," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 111, 2013, 165-180. (DOI:

Miller, David C., M. Muller, M. Kempe, K. Araki, C. Kennedy, S. Kurtz. "Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems." Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. Vol. 21(4), June 2013; pp. 631-651; NREL Report No. JA-5200-52177.

C. Peike, L. Purschke, K. A. Weiss, M. Koehl, M. Kempe, "Towards the Origin of Photochemical EVA Discoloration," 39th IEEE PVSC, Tampa, Florida (2013).

Wohlgemuth, J. H., Kempe, M. D., "Equating Damp Heat Testing with Field Failures of PV Modules," IEEE PVSC, Tampa Florida (2013); NREL Report No. AB-5200-57920.

Wohlgemuth, John H., Michael D. Kempe, and David C. Miller, "Discoloration of PV EVA Encapsulation," Proc. IEEE PVSC 2013.

Wohlgemuth, John, Sarah Kurtz, Tony Sample and Masaaki Yamamichi, "Predicting PV Module Service Life," SPIE 2013.

Zhang, Z., J. Wohlgemuth, and S. Kurtz, "The Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in PV Modules," NREL PV Module Reliability Workshop, 2013.

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Analytical Studies

Drury, E.; Jenkin, T.; Jordan, D.; Margolis, R., "Photovoltaic Investment Risk and Uncertainty for Residential Customers." IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. Vol. 4(1), January 2014; pp. 278-284; NREL Report No. JA-6A20-59041.

Goodrich, A.; Hacke, P.; Wang, Q.; Sopori, B.; Margolis, R.; James, T. L.; Woodhouse, M. "Wafer-Based Monocrystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Road Map: Utilizing Known Technology Improvement Opportunities for Further Reductions in Manufacturing Costs." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. Vol. 114, July 2013; pp. 110-135; NREL Report No. JA-6A20-57504.

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PV Outdoor Studies

Cronin, A.; Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R. "Measuring Degradation Rates of PV Systems Without Irradiance Data." Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications; NREL Report No. JA-520-49385.

Hansen, Clifford, Andrew Pohl, Dirk Jordan, "Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for Photovoltaic System Modeling," Sandia report SAND2013-10358, 2013.

Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S. (2014). "Dark Horse of Evaluating Long-Term Field Performance - Data Filtering." IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. Vol. 4(1), January 2014; pp. 317-323; NREL Report No. JA-5200-57898.

Marion, B.; Schaefer, R.; Caine, H.; Sanchez, G. (2013). "Measured and Modeled Photovoltaic System Energy Losses from Snow for Colorado and Wisconsin Locations." Solar Energy. Vol. 97, November 2013; pp. 112-121.

Marion, W. F.; Dobos, A. P. (2013). "Rotation Angle for the Optimum Tracking of One-Axis Trackers." 15 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-58891.

Meydbray, J.; Emery, K.; Kurtz, S. (2012). "Pyranometers, Reference Cells: The Difference." PV Magazine: Photovoltaic Markets and Technology, April 2012; pp. 108-110; NREL Report No. JA-5200-56979.

Muller, M, TJ Silverman, S Kurtz, E Menard, S Burroughs, "Optical Cell Temperature Measurements of Multiple CPV Technologies in Outdoor Conditions." IEEE PVSC, Tampa, FL; NREL Report No. AB-5200-57937.

Muller, M.; Kurtz, S.; Rodriguez, J. "Procedural Considerations for CPV Outdoor Power Ratings Per IEC 62670." NREL Report No. CP-5200-58531.

Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S. (2013). "Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module." 6 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5200-57902.

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Power Electronics and System Engineering

Deline, C.; Dobos, A.; Janzou, S.; Meydbrey, J.; Donovan, M. (2013). "Simplified Model of Uniform Shading in Large Photovoltaic Arrays." Solar Energy. Vol. 96, October 2013; pp. 274-282; NREL Report No. JA-5200-57603.

Deline, C.; Macalpine, S. (2013). "Use Conditions and Efficiency Measurements of DC Power Optimizers for Photovoltaic Systems." 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 15-19 September 2013, Denver, Colorado. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) pp. 4801-4807; NREL Report No. CP-5200-61219.

Dongaonkar, S.; Deline, C.; Alam, M. A. (2013). "Performance and Reliability Implications of Two-Dimensional Shading in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules." IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. Vol. 3(4), October 2013; pp. 1367-1375; NREL Report No. JA-5200-60819.

MacAlpine S, Deline C, Erickson R, Brandemuehl M. (2013) "Measured Module Performance Variation and the Opportunity for Distributed Power Electronics: Analysis of 27 PV Arrays in the Southwestern U.S.," IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Tampa, FL 2013.

Ollala, C.; Deline, C.; Maksimovic, D. (2014). "Performance of Mismatched PV Systems with Submodule Integrated Converters." IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. Vol. 4(1), January 2014; pp. 396-404; NREL Report No. JA-5200-57894.

Sorensen, N.R.T., E. V.; Quintana, M. A.; Barkaszi, S.; Rosenthal, A.; Zhang, Z.; Kurtz, S., "Thermal Study of Inverter Components," IEEE J. of Photovoltaics, 2012, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2013.2244162 Manuscript Number: JPV-2012-12-0358-R

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Standards and Standards Development

Updated Proposal for a Guide for Quality Management Systems for PV Manufacturing: Supplemental Requirements to ISO 9001-2008

IEC 62804: "System voltage durability qualification test for crystalline silicon modules" submitted as committee draft (CD), February, 2013

Wohlgemuth, J. "Standards for PV Modules and Components — Recent Developments and Challenges," (invited) 28th EU PVSEC, 2012.

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