Silicon Cluster Tool Capabilities
The Silicon cluster tool within the Process Development and Integration Laboratory is a 10-port cluster tool designed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufactured by MVSystems. It handles standard 157-mm x 157-mm samples introduced into the central 10-6 torr vacuum chamber via a load lock. From there, a robotic arm moves samples from one chamber to another within the cluster tool. Contact Pauls Stradins for more details on its capabilities.
- Researching techniques and parameters for record-efficiency solar cell fabrication
- Monitoring material growth in situ
- Carrying out high-throughput experiments on the impact of sample thickness and depositional temperature
- Exploring potential industry practices for fabricating silicon solar cells
- Studying amorphous silicon (a-Si)-based films (a-Si:H, a-SiGe:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiCx:H) and nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films (nc-Si:H and nc-SiGe:H), transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), thin-film transistors, and thin-film diodes
- Researching single junctions, tandems, crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunctions, surface passivation, and hydrogenation
Basic Cluster Tool Capabilities
- Sample and mask loader
- Transport pod for inter-tool sample transport
- Vacuum robot for intra-tool sample transport
- Very-high-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) for microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si:H)
- Combinatorial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (Combi-PECVD) for p-type a-Si:H
- Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for n-type a-Si:H
- Combinatorial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (Combi-PECVD) for intrinsic a-Si:H
- Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for SiNx antireflective coating
- Combinatorial hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (Combi-HWCVD) for intrinsic a-Si:H
- Sputtering for metal contacts and TCOs
- Plasma etching at ultra-high (10-8 torr) vacuum
The figure shows where chambers—numbered in the list above—are located on the ten ports around the central chamber. A robotic arm moves samples from one chamber to another within the cluster tool.
Other Support Capabilities
The Silicon cluster tool contains many capabilities for silicon research. But additional capabilities for processing, integrated measurements and characterization, and stand-alone measurements and characterization are available elsewhere in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory.
Samples from the Silicon cluster tool can be transported to the other tools using the mobile transport pod, which can keep samples under vacuum conditions.