Skip to main content


The process development and integration approach used within the Process Development and Integration Laboratory (PDIL) provides numerous capabilities for scientific investigations. Most of these research and development (R&D) capabilities are associated with specific cluster tools for modular deposition, processing, and characterization techniques. The cluster tools are configured around a system using a central robotic arm to transfer samples.

The links within the three capabilities areas below take you to basic descriptions of specific existing and planned equipment available to you in the PDIL.

Photovoltaic Material-Specific Capabilities

Four cluster tools are available for R&D on specific photovoltaic materials. These materials can be deposited, processed, measured, and characterized using the process development and integration approach. Samples can be transferred to additional capabilities via a transport pod.

Measurements and Characterization Capabilities

Two "bays" of the PDIL provide access to a powerful suite of measurement and characterization techniques. An integrated tool set uses the robotic transfer chamber to connect capabilities covering electrical/optical, structural/morphological, and chemical/compositional techniques. A second bay contains stand-alone tools for measurements and characterization. View a short animated video that explains seven terms related to sample measurements in the PDIL.

Cross-Cutting Technology Capabilities

One special cluster tool allows scientists to work on processes that do not require high-temperature, high-vacuum conditions. It combines deposition, processing, and characterization techniques that are expanded across material-specific technologies.

Contact Kaitlyn VanSant for more information on the Process Development and Integration Laboratory capabilities.