A key issue in photovoltaics (PV) research and development (R&D) is relating the performance of PV devices to the methods and materials used to produce them. Due to the nature of these devices, the electronic and optical properties of the materials are key to device performance. The relationship between materials growth and processing, the resulting electro-optical properties, and device performance can be extremely complex and difficult to determine without direct measurement of these properties. We strive to provide accurate and timely measurements of the electro-optical properties as a function of device processing to provide researchers and manufacturers with the knowledge they need to troubleshoot problems and develop the knowledge base necessary for reducing cost, maximizing efficiency, improving reliability, and enhancing manufacturability.
The following table provides a condensed listing of performance applications and ranges for each electro-optical technique/capability.
Electro-Optical Characterization Techniques/Capabilities
|Typical Applications||Detection Range||Temperature Range||Non-Destructive?||Image/|
|Photoluminescence spectroscopy||Determine bandgap, material quality. Identify defects.||0.4–2.7 µm||4–300 K||Yes||Yes|
|Minority-carrier lifetime spectroscopy||Measure minority-carrier lifetime, surface recombination. Determine dominant recombination mechanisms.||4–300 K||Yes||Yes|
|Optical: 0.4–>1.4 µm with 2×10-11 s resolution|
|PCD: 5×10-9 s resolution|
|Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy||Identify contaminants. Analyze reaction in situ. Measure impurity concentration, inhomogeneity.||1.3–100 µm||8–300 K||Yes||Yes|
|Spectroscopic ellipsometry||Determine film thickness, crystallinity, composition, roughness, temperature, optical and electronic properties.||0.2–1.7 µm||Room temperature||Yes||Yes|
|Capacitance techniques||Measure carrier concentration profiles, interface state density, deep-level properties.||Quasistatic to 100 MHz frequencies||77–360 K||Yes||Yes|
|Scanning defect mapping||Map dislocation and grain-boundary distributions in silicon wafers.||103 to 108 defects/cm2||Room temperature||No||Yes|
|Reflectance spectroscopy||Determine numerous solar cell physical parameters, including surface roughness, film thickness, metallization properties.||Reflectance to 1% accuracy from 0.4–1.1 µm||Room temperature||Yes||Yes|
|Computational Modeling||Simulate electro-optical experiments and solar cell devices through advanced multi-dimensional modeling.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
For additional information contact Dean Levi, 303-384-6605.