Dr. Arthur J. Frank is a Principal Scientist in the Chemical & Materials Science Center. His interests include basic and applied research on the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy and fuels (specifically, hydrogen production from water splitting) using sensitized and nonsensitized nanostructured semiconductor electrodes. His research involves both experimental and theoretical studies to understand the physical and chemical factors that govern the energetics/kinetics of transport and interfacial charge transfer and the limitations that these processes impose on the performance and stability of these photosystems. A combination of diagnostic tools, such as frequency- and time-domain techniques (e.g., intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy, electrical impedance spectroscopy, and transient photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy, time of flight, and charge extraction method) along with modeling and computer simulations, is employed for this research. Another topic of interest is electrical energy storage using Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.
Prior to joining NREL, Dr. Frank was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California (Calvin Lab.) at Berkeley (1976–78) and the Hahn-Meitner Institute in Berlin (1975–76), where he worked in the field of molecular and colloidal solar photochemistry. He did his doctoral research at the University of Florida (1975), where his work centered on radiation chemistry and gas phase kinetics. He received his B.A. from the University of Colorado at Boulder.
- Halverson, A.F.; Zhu, K.; Erslev, P.T.; Jin Young Kim, J.Y.; Neale, N.R.; Frank, A.J. (2012). "Perturbation of the Electron Transport Mechanism by Proton Intercalation in Nanoporous TiO2 Films." Nano Lett. (12:4); pp. 2112-2116. Accessed July 27, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl300399w.
- Feng, X.; Zhu, K.; Frank, A.J.; Grimes, C.A.; Mallouk, T.E. (2012). "Rapid Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Made from Vertically Aligned Single Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires." Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (124:11); pp. 2781-2784. Accessed July 27, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ange.201108076.
- Jang, S.-R.; Zhu, K.; Ko, M.J.; Kim, K; Kim, C.; Park, N.-G.; Frank, A.J. (2011). "Voltage-Enhancement Mechanisms of an Organic Dye in High Open-Circuit Voltage Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells." ACS Nano. (5:10); pp. 8267-8274. Accessed July 27, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn2029567.
- Kang, S.H.; Zhu, K.; Neale, N.R.; Frank, A.J. (2011). "Hole transport in sensitized CdS–NiO nanoparticle photocathode." Chem. Commun. (47); pp. 10419-10421.
- Neale, N.R.; Lee, B.G.; Kang, S.H.; Frank, A.J. (2011). "Near-Infrared Light Trapping in Disordered Inverse Opals." J. Phys. Chem. C. (115:29); pp. 14341-14346. Accessed July 27, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp202407y.
- Zhu, K.; Jang, S.-R.; Frank, A.J. (2011). "Impact of High Charge-Collection Efficiencies and Dark Energy-Loss Processes on Transport, Recombination and Photovoltaic Properties of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells." J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (2:9); pp. 1070-1076. Accessed July 27, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jz200290c.
- Zhu, K.; Frank, A.J. (2011). "Converting light to electrons in oriented nanotube arrays used in sensitized solar cells." MRS Bull. (36); pp. 446-452. Accessed July 27, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/mrs.2011.112.
- Kim, J.Y.; Noh, J.H.; Zhu, K.; Halverson, A.D.; Neale, N.R.; Park, S.; Hong, K.S.; Frank, A.J. (2011). "General Strategy for Fabricating Transparent TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrodes: Illumination Geometry and Transport Properties." ACS Nano. (5:4); pp. 2647-2656. Accessed July 27, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn200440u.
- Kim, J.-H; Kang, S.H.; Zhu, K.; Kim, J.Y.; Neale, N.R.; Frank, A.J. (2011). "Ni–NiO core–shell inverse opal electrodes for supercapacitors." Chem. Commun. (47); pp. 5214-5216. Accessed July 27, 2012: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C0CC05191H.