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NREL publishes biomass journal articles, technical reports, conference papers, and outreach documents. Explore a sampling of our most recent or often-cited publications in:

For the complete collection of NREL's biomass publications, search the NREL Publications Database. For information on biomass policy, read congressional testimony of NREL managers.

Biomass Characterization

Chemical Profiles of Switchgrass. Hu, Z.; Sykes, R.; Davis, M. F.; Brummer, C.; Ragauskas, A. J. Bioresource Technology. Vol. 101(9), 2010; pp. 3253-3257. NREL Report No. JA-510-47556 (May 2010).

High-Throughput Screening Techniques for Biomass Conversion. Decker, S. R.; Brunecky, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Himmel, M. E.; Selig, M. J. Bioenergy Research. Vol. 2(4), 2009; pp. 179-192. NREL Report No. JA-270-46866 (December 2009).

Assessing Corn Stover Composition and Sources of Variability via NIRS. Templeton, D. W.; Sluiter, A. D.; Hayward, T. K.; Hames, B. R.; Thomas, S. R. Cellulose. Vol. 16(4), 2009; pp. 621-639. NREL Report No. JA-510-44100 (June 2009).

Characterization, Genetic Variation, and Combining Ability of Maize Traits Relevant to the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol. Lorenz, A. J.; Coors, J. G.; de Leon, N.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Hames, B. R.; Sluiter, A. D.; Weimer, P. J. Crop Science. Vol. 49(1), 2009; pp. 85-98. NREL Report No. JA-510-45347 (January 2009).

Biomass Recalcitrance: Engineering Plants and Enzymes for Biofuels Production. Himmel, M. E.; Ding, S. Y.; Johnson, D. K.; Adney, W. S.; Nimlos, M. R.; Brady, J. W.; Foust, T. D. Science. Vol. 315(5813), 2007; pp. 804-807. NREL Report No. JA-270-40965 (February 2007).

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Biochemical Conversion

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons. Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E.C.D.; Biddy, M.J.; Beckham, G.T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.: Knorr, D.; Schoen, P. 147 pp. NREL Report No. NREL-TP-5100-60223 (October 2013).

Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover. Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D. 147 pp. NREL Report No. TP-5100-47764 (May 2011).

Economic Comparison of Different Fermentation Configurations to Convert Corn Stover to Ethanol Using Z. mobilis and Saccharomyces. Dutta, A.; Dowe, N.; Ibsen, K. N.; Schell, D. J.; Aden, A. Biotechnology Progress. Vol. 26(1), 2010; pp. 64-72. NREL Report No. JA-510-45764 (January 2010).

Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model. Humbird, D.; Aden, A. 16 pp. NREL Report No. TP-510-46214 (August 2009).

Role of Pretreatment and Conditioning Processes on Toxicity of Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates. Pienkos, P. T.; Zhang, M. Cellulose. Vol. 16(4), 2009; pp. 743-762. NREL Report No. JA-510-45438 (June 2009).

Summary of Findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): Corn Stover Pretreatment. Elander, R. T.; Dale, B. E.; Holtzapple, M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mitchinson, C.; Saddler, J. N.; Wyman, C. E. Cellulose. Vol. 16(4), 2009; pp. 649-659. NREL Report No. JA-510-46027 (June 2009).

Particle Concentration and Yield Stress of Biomass Slurries During Enzymatic Hydrolysis at High-Solids Loadings. Roche, C. M.; Dibble, C. J.; Knutsen, J. S.; Stickel, J. J.; Liberatore, M. W. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Vol. 104(2), 2009; pp. 290-300. NREL Report No. JA-510-45440 (April 2009).

Research Advances Cellulosic Ethanol, NREL Leads the Way 8 pp. NREL Report No. BR-510-40742 (March 2007).

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Thermochemical Conversion

The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab-scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). NREL’s custom-built LEFR system continuously produces char-free pyrolysis vapors and delivers them to a second, independently controlled, catalytic reactor.

Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis. Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R. 187 pp. NREL Report No. TP-5100-51400 (May 2011).

Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass for Biofuels Production. French, R.; Czernik, S. Fuel Processing Technology. Vol. 91(1), 2010. NREL Report No. JA-510-45420 (January 2010).

Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass. Dutta, A.; Phillips, S. D. 144 pp. NREL Report No. TP-510-45913 (July 2009).

Parametric Gasification of Oak and Pine Feedstocks Using the TCPDU and Slipstream Water-Gas Shift Catalysis. Hrdlicka, J.; Feik, C.; Carpenter, D.; Pomeroy, M. 45 pp. NREL Report No. TP-510-44557 (December 2008).

Technoeconomic Analysis of a Lignocellulosic Biomass Indirect Gasification Process to Make Ethanol via Mixed Alcohols Synthesis. Phillips, S. D. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. Vol. 46(26), 2007; pp. 8887-8897. NREL Report No. JA-510-42274 (November 2007).

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Chemical and Catalyst Science

Pilot-Scale Gasification of Corn Stover, Switchgrass, Wheat Straw, and Wood: 1. Parametric Study and Comparison with Literature. Carpenter, D. L.; Bain, R. L.; Davis, R. E.; Dutta, A.; Feik, C. J.; Gaston, K. R.; Jablonski, W.; Phillips, S. D.; Nimlos, M. R. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. Vol. 49(4), 2010; pp. 1859-1871. NREL Report No. JA-510-45879 (January 2010).

Pilot-Scale Gasification of Corn Stover, Switchgrass, Wheat Straw, and Wood: 2. Identification of Global Chemistry Using Multivariate Curve Resolution Techniques. Jablonski, W.; Gaston, K. R.; Nimlos, M. R.; Carpenter, D. L.; Feik, C. J.; Phillips, S. D. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. Vol. 48(23), 2009; pp. 10691-10701. NREL Report No. JA-510-45880 (December 2009).

Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Sulfur Sorbents for Application to Desulfurizing Biomass- and Coal-Derived Syngas. Cheah, S.; Carpenter, D. L.; Magrini-Bair, K. A. Energy Fuels. Vol. 23(11), 2009; pp. 5291-5307. NREL Report No. JA-510-46332 (November 2009).

Improved Multivariate Calibration Models for Corn Stover Feedstock and Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover. Wolfrum, E. J.; Sluiter, A. D. Cellulose. Vol. 16(4), 2009; pp. 567-576. NREL Report No. JA-510-44240 (June 2009).

Review of Catalytic Conditioning of Biomass-Derived Syngas. Yung, M. M.; Jablonski, W. S.; Magrini-Bair, K. A. Energy and Fuels. Vol. 23, 2009; pp. 1874-1887. NREL Report No. JA-510-44310 (March 2009).

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Integrated Biorefinery Processes

Integrating and Piloting Lignocellulose Biomass Conversion Technology. Schell, D. 18 pp. NREL Report No. PR-510-46125 (June 2009).

Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility: Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels and Bioproducts. 2 pp. NREL Report No. FS-5100-53429 (December 2011).

Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass. 4 pp. NREL Report No. BR-510-44034 (January 2009).

Modeling Tomorrow's Biorefinery—the NREL Biochemical Pilot Plant. 4 pp. NREL Report No. BR-510-41334 (March 2008).

Clean Fractionation: Technology Available for Licensing. 1 pp. NREL Report No. FS-7A1-43959 (October 2008).

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Microalgal Biofuels

Theoretical Maximum Algal Oil Production. Weyer, K.M.; Bush, D.R.; Darzins, A.; Willson, B.D. BioEnergy Research. Published online: 08 October 2009. NREL Report No. JA-510-46124 (October 2009).

The Promise and Challenges of Microalgal-Derived Biofuels. Pienkos, P. T.; Darzins, A. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. Vol. 3(4), 2009; pp. 431-440. NREL Report No. JA-510-45439 (May 2009).

Aquatic Species Program: Lessons Learned. Jarvis, E.E. 29 pp. NREL Report No. PR-510-43232 (February 2008).

Jet Fuel from Microalgal Lipids. 2 pp. NREL Report No. FS-840-40352 (July 2006).

A Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae; Close-Out Report. Sheehan, J.; Dunahay, T.; Benemann, J.; Roessler, P. 325 pp. NREL Report No. TP-580-24190 (July 1998).

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Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses

Economic and Environmental Comparison of a Biochemical and a Thermochemical Lignocellulosic Ethanol Conversion Process. Foust, T. D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.; Phillips, S. Cellulose. Vol. 16(4), 2009; pp. 547-565. NREL Report No. JA-510-45976 (June 2009).

Technoeconomic Analysis of the Dilute Sulfuric Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process for the Conversion of Corn Stover to Ethanol. Aden, A.; Foust, T. Cellulose. Vol. 16(4), 2009; pp. 535-545. NREL Report No. JA-510-45977 (June 2009).

Economics of Current and Future Biofuels. Tao, L.; Aden, A. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant. Vol. 45(3), 2009; pp. 199-217. NREL Report No. JA-510-46175 (May 2009).

Environmental and Sustainability Factors Associated With Next-Generation Biofuels: What Do We Really Know? Williams, P. R. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Heath, G. A. Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 43(13), 2009; pp. 4763-4775. NREL Report No. JA-510-44922 (May 2009).

Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised). Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. 102 pp. NREL Report No. SR-6A2-44428 (March 2009).

Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry. Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S. 49 pp. NREL Report No. TP-150-42120 (April 2008).

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