Renewable Energy Certificate and Green Power Markets
NREL's market analysis group examines the implications of customer choice on the market demand for renewable energy as well as renewable energy certificate (REC) markets that have emerged for compliance with state renewable energy standards. They have tracked the status of voluntary markets for renewable energy and conducted analyses of regional REC market demand.
Key Analyses for 2014
Status of Green Power Marketing
SEAC analysts Jenny Heeter, Ksenia Kuskova-Burns, and consultant, Kathy Belyeu, published Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data). With voluntary green power markets, consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2013.
The voluntary green power market totaled more than 62 million MWh in 2013, with about 5.4 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1.20/MWh.
Green Power Network
The Green Power Network (GPN) provides news and information on green power markets and related activities. The site provides up-to-date information on green power providers, product offerings, consumer protection issues, and policies affecting green power markets. It also includes a reference library of relevant papers, articles and reports.
Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data). Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T. (2013). 67 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-60210.
Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data). Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L. (2012). 36 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-56128.
Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data). Heeter, J.; Bird, L. (2011). 66 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-52925.
Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015. Bird, L., Sumner, J. and Kreycik, C. with Holt, E. (2010). 38 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A2-48158.
Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study — Preliminary Findings: Preprint. Corbus, D.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Schuerger, M.; Zavadil, B. (2009). 9 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-46505.
Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers. Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G. (2009). 14 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-6A2-45970.
Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015. Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C. (2009). 51 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A2-45041.
Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data). Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B. (2009). 54 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A2-46581.
Green Price Stability. Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G. Public Utilities Fortnightly. (2009). Vol. 147(1), January 2009; pp. 42-52; NREL Report No. JA-6A2-46108.
Green Pricing Program Marketing Expenditures: Finding the Right Balance. Friedman, B.; Miller, M. (2009). 39 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A2-46449.
How do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study; Preprint. Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Piwko, R. (2009). 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-46517.
Impact of Electric Industry Structure on High Wind Penetration Potential. Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Gramlich, R.; Goggin, M. (2009). 31 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-550-46273.
Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications. Peterson, D.; Haase, S. (2009). 32 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-7A2-46190.
Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates. Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G. (2008). 59 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-670-44072.
Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition). Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B. (2008). 49 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A2-44094.
Implications of Carbon Cap-and-Trade for U.S. Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets. Bird, L. A.; Holt, E.; Carroll, G. L. (2008). Energy Policy. Vol. 36(6), 2008; pp. 2063-2073; NREL Report No. JA-670-42908. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.02.009
Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets. Bird, L.; Lokey, E. (2008). Electricity Journal. Vol. 21(1), 2008; pp. 18-31; NREL Report No. JA-670-42696. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2007.12.006
Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. Bird, L. A.; Swezey, B. G.; Cory, K. S. (2008). 36 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-670-43532.
Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition). Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B. (2007). 68 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-670-42502.
Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets. Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Carroll, G. (2007). 69 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-640-41076.
Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets. Bird, L.; Lokey, E. (2007). 32 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-670-42096.
Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006). Bird, L.; Kaiser, M. (2007). 52 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-670-42287.
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